Language Development in Children Quiz

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47 Questions

What are the key functions of language?

Information Exchange

What evidence supports the idea that the capacity for language is innate?

Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas in the brain

What features define a true language?

Arbitrary symbols with meaning and organized by rules

Briefly explain the interactionist hypothesis of language development.

Language development is influenced by both biological maturation and environmental input

What are the five spiritual/religious orientations among grade 11 & 12 students?

Spiritual/irreligious, Disconnected wonderers, High institutional & personal, Primarily personal, Meditators

What is the main difference between Elkind’s and Fowler’s stages of spiritual development/faith formation?

Elkind's stages focus on age-related development, while Fowler's stages focus on different stages of faith

What characterizes Elkind’s 'Personal Connection' stage of faith development?

A sense that they can relate to God one-to-one

What is the main outcome for teens of developing an active spirituality and/or being actively part of a religion?

Support, sense of belonging, guidance, coping, resilience, and meaning

What are the major strategies and challenges in studying perceptual development in children?

Identifying genetic influences and environmental interactions

What are the basic perceptual capacities of newborns?

Ability to see in depth, focus, and track moving objects

What are the major concepts in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

Assimilation, accommodation, sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

What are the major concepts in Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development?

Zone of proximal development, scaffolding, cultural tools, social interaction

What does creativity in children look like?

Originality, flexibility, fluency, elaboration, and problem-solving

What is the virtue that adolescents should develop according to Erik Erikson?

Fidelity

At what stage of moral development do individuals make judgments based on tangible punitive or rewarding consequences of an act?

Stage 1: Obedience Orientation

What is one of the critiques of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

It reflects a western ideal of justice

According to Carol Gilligan, what is one of the biases in Kohlberg's theory?

It is biased against women

What did Carol Gilligan propose as an alternative to Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

Theory of Moral Care

What did research show about the relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior?

Moral reasoning does not predict moral behavior accurately

At what stage of moral reasoning are individuals more likely to act in a morally principled manner?

Postconventional

When given the opportunity to cheat, what percentage of university students who employed postconventional moral reasoning cheated?

15%

At what stage of moral development do most adults settle?

Stage 4: Social System morality

At what stage of moral development are moral judgments based on a desire to gain approval or to uphold laws that maintain social order?

Stage 3: Interpersonal norms

What is the goal of adolescence according to Erik Erikson?

To develop a sense of identity

What is the ability that adolescents should develop according to Erik Erikson?

Fidelity

At what age do more complex emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, and pride become evident?

Around 2 years of age

Why did developmental psychologists move away from Chess and Thomas’ three basic patterns of temperament?

Due to the advantages of a more comprehensive description

What does the concept of 'goodness of fit' refer to in child development?

The match between a child’s temperament and their environment

What did Tronick’s “Still Face” experiment demonstrate about infants?

Infants rely on emotional connection and responsiveness from caregivers for healthy emotional development

What major systems govern and help regulate emotions?

Behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition

At what age does empathy emerge spontaneously?

Around 2 years of age

What is attachment in child development more than?

Bonding with the person who feeds you

What does having a secure attachment figure enable a child to do?

Use them as a secure base for exploration

What is the Strange Situation an informative measure of in child development?

A child’s attachment to a caregiver

What influences the quality of parenting and childcare in relation to children's secure attachments?

The quality of parenting and childcare

What does phonology involve?

The set of sounds used in a language

What does syntax involve?

The rules guiding word combinations

What is the universal sequence of language acquisition?

Producing sounds, cooing, and babbling before understanding turn-taking and using preverbal gestures

When does language comprehension develop in children?

Before expressive language

How do children learn new words through fast mapping?

By associating a new word with its referent after a single exposure

What are some errors children may make during the holophrastic phase?

Overextension and underextension

How can more knowledgeable others support language development in children?

Through turn-taking, modeling, and engaging in conversation

What is the impact of learning multiple languages on vocabulary?

Initially slows acquisition and limits vocabulary, but ultimately provides cognitive and sociocultural benefits

When is early exposure to languages important for retaining phonemic distinctions?

Before puberty

What do cochlear implants provide access to?

The speaking/hearing world

What do deaf individuals advocate for in terms of access?

Good access to both sign and speech

How can emotional and self-concept development be assessed?

By responding to the questions at the end of each module in the study material

Study Notes

Language Development in Children

  • Phonology involves the set of sounds used in a language, while morphology involves the meaningful combinations of these sounds.
  • Semantics deals with meaningful units such as words and phrases, syntax involves the rules guiding word combinations, and pragmatics includes sociolinguistic knowledge and nonverbal signals.
  • The universal sequence of language acquisition starts with prelingual stage where infants produce sounds, coo, and babble, then understand turn-taking and use preverbal gestures before comprehending language and developing vocabulary.
  • Language comprehension develops before expressive language, with children initially uttering single words and then progressing to simple sentences.
  • Children learn new words through fast mapping and may make errors such as overextension and underextension during the holophrastic phase, and overregularization during the telegraphic phase.
  • More knowledgeable others can support language development through turn-taking, modeling, and engaging in conversation with children.
  • Learning multiple languages initially slows acquisition and limits vocabulary, but ultimately provides cognitive and sociocultural benefits.
  • Early exposure to languages is important for retaining phonemic distinctions, and children learn sign language more easily before puberty.
  • Cochlear implants provide access to the speaking/hearing world but may limit access to sign language and require significant rehabilitation and training.
  • Deaf individuals advocate for good access to both sign and speech, and support for deaf institutions and organizations.
  • To check learning on emotional development, it is best to refer to the learning objectives and respond to the questions at the end of each module.
  • Emotional and self-concept development can be assessed by responding to the questions at the end of each module in the study material.

Test your knowledge of language development in children with this quiz. Explore topics such as phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics. Learn about the universal sequence of language acquisition, language comprehension, vocabulary development, bilingualism, and the impact of cochlear implants. Assess your understanding of emotional and self-concept development in children.

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