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29 Questions

According to the updated Koch's Molecular Postulates, what is one of the criteria in identifying the gene responsible for virulence?

The gene must be present in avirulent strains.

Which stage of the disease process involves further growth at original or other sites?

Invasiveness

What type of transmission involves passing a communicable disease from an infected host to a particular individual or group?

Horizontal transmission

In the disease process, what happens during the stage of skin/mucosa adherence?

Attachment and invasion happen

Which type of transmission involves passing a communicable disease through another organism?

Vector-borne transmission

What is a key step in confirming the gene responsible for virulence according to Koch's Molecular Postulates?

Introducing a cloned gene into avirulent strains.

Which factor plays an important role in the successful exposure of a disease?

Distribution on host

What is the significance of biofilms in infections?

They increase average hospital stay

Which of the following is NOT a factor that influences successful exposure to diseases?

Hydrophobicity

What is the main consequence of microbial toxins on host tissues?

Inducing septic shock

How do bacteria avoid host defenses during attachment and invasion?

By resisting phagocytosis

What is the role of receptors on host cells in the transmission of diseases?

Facilitate attachment of pathogens to cells

Which of the following is NOT a type of microbial exotoxin based on its effect?

Hemotoxin

What role do Type I Superantigens play in host cells?

Inducing intense immune response

Which statement accurately describes the role of vectors in disease transmission?

Vectors facilitate transmission between hosts

Which bacterial pathogen produces Toxin A (enterotoxin) and Toxin B (cytotoxin)?

Clostridium difficile

Which type of microbial toxin affects cells lining the gastrointestinal tract?

Enterotoxin

What is the primary role of animals in infectious diseases according to the text?

Acting as a reservoir for infectious agents

Which occupation is traditionally mentioned as being at a higher risk of infectious disease exposure due to close contact with animals or animal products?

Farmers

Which phenomenon involves the combination of two or more different strains of a virus to produce a new form with a mixture of surface antigens?

Antigenic shift

What are Koch's postulates primarily used for in infectious disease research?

To establish causative relationships between microorganisms and diseases

Which infectious disease is mentioned as having proof available following Koch's postulates?

Diphtheria

What is a major risk factor for infectious disease transmission highlighted in the text?

Close contact with infected animals or contaminated environments

Which of the following non-bacterial diseases is known to be persistent and can be localised or systemic?

Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus

Which non-bacterial disease is commonly caused by the species of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum?

Athlete's foot

Which viral disease can lead to human breast cancer according to the provided text?

Mouse mammary tumor virus

What type of disease can be caused by Mycoses as mentioned in the text?

Fungal infections

Which viral disease is classified as a communicable disease according to the text?

Influenza

Athlete's foot, Thrush, and Aspergillosis are examples of diseases that are caused by which type of pathogens as per the text?

Fungi

Test your understanding of Koch's Molecular Postulates, a modern update to Koch's postulates used to identify the genes responsible for bacterial virulence. Learn how to determine the gene or gene product causing infection and its presence in disease-causing strains.

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