quiz 5 Koch's Molecular Postulates Quiz micro 1,2 renal

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51 Questions

What is the main purpose of microbial identification?

To distinguish between different species of microbes

Which method is used for increasing the accuracy of identifying microorganisms based on colony morphology?

Sub-culturing individual colonies

What is NOT a part of diagnostic microbiology?

Molecular biology

Which technique is commonly used for microbial identification?

Colony morphology

What type of media is used for selective growth of specific microbes?

MacConkey agar

What is the primary purpose of identifying microbial contaminants?

To characterize contaminants in pharmaceuticals

Which type of agar is selective for certain fungi, with low pH and high glucose?

Sabouraud Dextrose Agar

What is the main purpose of Mannitol Salt Agar?

Differentiates Staphylococci based on Mannitol and phenol red

Which microscopy technique involves staining and can identify pure bacterial cultures using Gram staining?

Light microscopy

What is the main purpose of API strips in biochemical profiling?

Obtaining numerical codes for organisms

Which method is increasingly used for identification due to its speed and cost, and is based on ionized molecules?

MALDI TOF

What are the ideal qualities of a diagnostic method as mentioned in the text?

Specific, rapid, inexpensive, accurate

Which of the following is NOT an example of a waterborne disease?

Salmonella

What is the term for the relative degree of damage done by a pathogen?

Virulence

Which of the following is an example of an obligate pathogen?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

What is the term for an intracellular pathogen's ability to obtain nutrition from the host?

Colonization of a niche in the host

Which term refers to an infection present in a population which is maintained constantly with no external input?

Endemic

What is the main source of highly infectious diseases such as HIV and smallpox?

People

Which term refers to a microorganism that normally resides on the body without causing disease but can cause disease when the microbial balance is upset?

Opportunistic pathogen

Which of the following is NOT a major source of zoonotic infectious diseases?

Fungi

What is the term for the combination of two or more different strains of a virus producing a new form of virus?

Antigenic shift

Which occupation does NOT traditionally come in close contact with animals or animal products?

Laboratory technician

What is the main risk factor for exposure to zoonotic infectious diseases?

Close contact with infected animals or contaminated environments

What is the term for accumulation of mutations within antibody binding regions that reduces the effectiveness of the immune system?

Antigenic drift

What is the term for the groups of microorganisms that stick to each other and surfaces, playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of many infections?

Biofilms

Which of the following can lead to septic shock and is part of the bacterial cell membrane?

Endotoxins (LPS)

What is the term for the ability of pathogens to resist host responses and obtain appropriate nutrients?

Virulence

What can initially cause fever and shock due to the release of endotoxins?

Antibiotics

Who can cause red blood cell lysis and can be proteins or lipid biosurfactants?

Haemolysins

Which type of bacteria are classified based on their staining properties and can affect their response to antibiotics?

Gram-positive

Which route of disease transmission involves transmission through other organisms?

Vector borne (through other organisms)

What is the term for the ability of bacteria to attach to host cells using pili or adhesins and resist phagocytosis with capsules?

Virulence

What is the term for the process that can lead to haemolytic anemia and is caused by bacteria's hemolytic activity?

Hemolysis

What depends on multiple factors including microbe count, environmental persistence, and route of transmission?

Disease exposure

'Vehicle borne' disease transmission occurs through which medium?

Inanimate objects

The role of biofilms in infections can increase a patient's average hospital stay and resistance to treatment by what percentage?

80%

Which of the following hormones is a potent vasoconstrictor of both afferent and efferent arterioles, thus reducing glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

Angiotensin II

What hormone causes the glomerulus to relax, increasing the surface area for filtration?

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

Which hormone is released in response to low blood flow and affects facultative water reabsorption by increasing the water permeability of principal cells in the last part of the distal convoluted tubule and throughout the collecting duct?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Which hormone is released by the parathyroid gland and stimulates cells in the early distal convoluted tubule to reabsorb Ca2+ into the blood?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Which part of the brain is responsible for triggering the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in response to low blood flow?

Hypothalamus

Which of the following ions is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule, promoted by parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

Phosphate ions

What percentage of filtered water is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

15%

Which fungal disease is caused by Candida albicans and leads to white patches in the mouth or genitals?

Thrush

What is the common fungal disease causing irritation, dry and inflamed skin with localised pain?

Athlete's foot

Which fungal disease is commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and can be invasive in immune-compromised patients?

Aspergillosis

Which viral disease can lead to cervical cancer?

HPV

Which virus can lead to human breast cancer?

Mouse mammary tumor virus

Where are the kidneys located in the body?

Below the diaphragm and adjacent to the vertebral column

Which organ is located below the diaphragm and adjacent to the vertebral column, causing the right kidney to be lower?

Liver

What is the function of kidneys?

Regulating blood volume, chemical composition, and pH

Study Notes

  • Mycoses are fungal diseases that can be persistent, localised or systemic, often caused by inhalation of fungal spores, and common in immunocompromised patients or those who have taken antibiotics
  • Athlete's foot is a common fungal disease causing irritation, dry and inflamed skin with localised pain, caused by species of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum
  • Thrush is another fungal disease caused by Candida albicans, leading to white patches in the mouth or genitals
  • Aspergillosis is a fungal disease commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and can be invasive in immune-compromised patients
  • Viral diseases can cause both communicable and non-communicable diseases, with examples including Herpes, HIV, Influenza, HPV leading to cervical cancer, Human adenovirus leading to obesity, and Mouse mammary tumor virus leading to human breast cancer
  • Urinary system consists of paired, bean-shaped organs located along the back body wall below the diaphragm and adjacent to the vertebral column, with the right kidney being lower due to liver occupying more space on the right side
  • Each kidney receives around 1/4 of cardiac output and is supplied by the renal arteries, with similar paths for arterial flow in and venous flow out, and the nerve supply being via sympathetic fibers from the renal plexus
  • Kidneys perform functions of removing toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood, regulating blood volume, chemical composition, and pH, and endocrine functions including gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting, renin regulation of blood pressure and kidney function, and erythropoietin regulation of RBC production
  • A nephron is a structural and functional unit of the kidney that forms urine, with each kidney having around 1 million nephrons, and cortical nephrons making up about 80-85% of the total having short loops of Henle and receiving blood supply from peritubular capillaries, and juxtamedullary nephrons making up the remaining 15-20% having long loops of Henle and receiving blood supply from the vasa recta
  • Collecting ducts of several nephrons empty into a single collecting duct, which unites and converges into several hundred large papillary ducts that drain into the minor calyces, major calyces, renal pelvis, and ureters
  • Renal corpuscle, the initial filtering component of a nephron, consists of a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule
  • Glomerular filtration is the process by which the kidney filters blood to form filtrate, with about half being returned to the blood and the other half becoming urine
  • Filtrate contains around 3L of water, 200g of protein, and small amounts of glucose, urea, and creatinine, with most being reabsorbed back into the blood and the remaining being excreted in the urine.

Test your understanding of Koch's Molecular Postulates with this quiz. Learn how to identify the gene responsible for a disease-causing strain of bacteria and demonstrate its role in virulence.

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