Introduction to International Relations

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What is the aim of the chapter?

To emphasize the practical reality of international relations in our everyday lives

What are the three main topics discussed in the chapter?

The significance of international relations, historical evolution of the state system, and changing contemporary world of states

What does 'IR' stand for in this context?

International Relations

What is the shorthand name for the academic subject of international relations?

IR

Which theory of international relations emphasizes the values of peace, freedom, order, and justice?

International Society theories

What principle lies at the core of international law according to the text?

Pacta sunt servanda ('agreements must be kept')

Which values are emphasized by the International Political Economy (IPE) theories of IR?

Economic interdependence and wealth

What is a striking feature of the contemporary state system according to the text?

Economic interdependence

Which values are emphasized by liberal theories of international relations?

Peace, freedom, order, and justice

What do states cooperate to maintain according to liberal theories of international relations?

Peace and freedom

What are states expected to uphold in order to maintain international order according to the text?

Respect for sovereignty

What is the primary focus of International Relations (IR)?

The study of the global state system from various perspectives

What is the 'security dilemma' in the state system related to?

Protection of individuals and states from internal and external threats

What do realist theories of IR emphasize to prevent state domination?

Balance of power

What is a fundamental reason for the existence of states?

Preserving freedom, both personal and national

What does peace enable in terms of international change?

Progressive international change

What does International Relations (IR) primarily study?

The global state system from various perspectives.

What do states uphold according to the text?

Fundamental social values including security, freedom, order, justice, and welfare.

What can threaten freedom according to the text?

War

What do realist theories emphasize to prevent state domination?

Balance of power

What is a fundamental reason for the existence of states according to the text?

Preserving freedom, both personal and national.

What does peace enable in terms of international change according to the text?

Progressive international change.

What event emphasized the destructive nature of modern warfare between major powers and the importance of preventing great-power wars?

The First World War

Which global challenge is mentioned as a recent threat to people's lives and livelihoods around the world?

COVID-19 pandemic and climate change

What was the first major attempt to establish legal institutions to prevent great-power wars?

The League of Nations

What event showed how the economic livelihood of people could be affected by collapsing market conditions?

The Great Depression (1929–33)

Which theory is mentioned as one of the different IR theories with varying focuses?

Realism

What can happen when states fail to maintain core values according to the text?

They may unravel or fall apart.

Which academic disciplines are involved in the study of International Relations?

Political science, history, economics, law, and philosophy

Who were among the earliest commentators on International Relations?

Sun Tzu and Thucydides

When did IR become an academic discipline?

Early 20th century

What is the focus of International Relations?

Activities of independent nation-states

What does IR recognize about states?

'IR recognizes the independence and sovereignty of states, but acknowledges their interconnectedness.'

What is the significance of forming relationships in International Relations?

'It is important due to interconnectedness of states.'

When did the concept of maintaining a balance in interstate relations emerge?

16th century

Where does the international state system have deep historical roots?

Ancient China, Greece, and Italy

What do international markets and economic policies require states to do?

Interact with each other

What is the impact of isolation from the state system according to IR?

It often results in suffering for the population.

When did the international state system gain prominence in Europe?

Early modern era

How many citizens worldwide are affected by the international state system according to IR?

Almost 200 million citizens worldwide.

Study Notes

  • International Relations (IR) is the study of relationships and interactions between countries and their activities and policies, including governments, international organizations, NGOs, and multinational corporations.
  • IR is both a theoretical and practical subject, studied in political science, history, economics, law, and philosophy.
  • IR has a long history, with ancient Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu and Greek historian Thucydides among its earliest commentators.
  • IR became an academic discipline in the early 20th century.
  • IR focuses on the activities of independent nation-states, which form the international state system, affecting the lives of almost 200 million citizens worldwide.
  • IR recognizes the independence and sovereignty of states, but acknowledges their interconnectedness and the importance of forming relationships.
  • International markets and economic policies require states to interact, and isolation from the state system often results in suffering for the population.
  • IR dates back to the early modern era in Europe, with the concept of maintaining a balance in interstate relations emerging in the 16th century.
  • The international state system has deep historical roots, with precedents dating back to ancient China, Greece, and Italy, but gained prominence in Europe during the early modern era.

Explore the study of the global state system and its various scholarly perspectives in this informative book. Gain insights into the territorial nature of the world of states and its significance in international relations.

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