Intergenerational Impacts of Residential Schools

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What is the main idea behind socialization?

Learning how to interact with society through norms, values, and ideologies

In sociology, what does microlevel analysis focus on?

One-on-one or small-group interactions

Why is macrolevel socialization considered critical?

To preserve a society’s values and norms across generations

How do macro- and microlevel phenomena interact according to the text?

By constantly reinforcing and challenging each other

What is necessary for institutions to function according to sociologists?

People internalizing social roles, norms, and values

How can social change occur based on the text?

By questioning social roles, norms, and values

What was a key challenge faced by public health agencies in Canada during the COVID-19 outbreak?

Ensuring people followed social distancing guidelines

Primary socialization is...

The initial stage where children develop basic values and norms in early childhood

Why is turn-taking in conversations highlighted as important?

To illustrate a social norm learned during primary socialization

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an external force influencing primary socialization?

Television commercials

How do children typically learn turn-taking according to the text?

Through interactions with their families or caregivers

What is emphasized as a consequence of not adhering to turn-taking norms?

Being seen as rude for interrupting

What is the main goal of resocialization in a total institution according to the text?

To erase the inhabitants' current values, beliefs, and sense of self

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of a total institution in the text?

Public schools

What was the main purpose of establishing residential schools for Indigenous children according to the text?

To assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture

What type of practices were oppressed and denied at residential schools according to the text?

Indigenous languages and traditions

What was the main consequence for families and children when Indigenous children's attendance at residential schools became compulsory according to the text?

They received harsh punishments if they refused to attend

What did total institutions aim to do as explained in the text?

Erase current identities and replace them with new ones

Why did one former student feel ashamed to be Cree after attending the Catholic school in The Pas, Manitoba?

Being prohibited from speaking Cree language

What did Indigenous communities do in response to the mistreatment of children in residential schools?

Protested and resisted authorities

What concept helps explain the emotional and social response of children and grandchildren of trauma survivors from residential schools?

Intergenerational trauma

In what year did the last residential school in Canada close?


How did Monchalin (2016) describe the bond between child and parent in the context of residential schools?

Undermined due to physical separation and cultural disconnection

What did some residential school survivors struggle with in terms of relationships?

Developing trusting and supportive relations with family members

What are some common mental health challenges experienced by many survivors of residential schools?

Anxiety, depression, and severe posttraumatic stress disorder

What does Monchalin (2016) suggest about the transmission of abuse from one generation to the next?

Survivors who experienced abuse at residential schools later become perpetrators of abuse

What is primarily achieved during the process of kindergarten and school?

Reinforcement of rules of socialization with peers

Which socialization stage involves learning about assessment frameworks and expectations of mastery?

College and university socialization

What is a key aspect of workplace socialization?

Fitting into the culture of a workplace

During which stage do individuals primarily learn to internalize the social norms and expectations of a profession?


What is a significant role of mass media and social media in socialization?

Reinforcement of societal norms and expectations

What is a key aspect highlighted in the life course stages?

Expectations and social roles vary across cultures

In the Canadian context, which of the following is NOT an expectation for older adults?

Marry and have children

Which term best describes the concept of not conforming to expectations at each life stage?

Both B and C

What are the main mechanisms through which agents of socialization shape our development?

Modelling expected behaviors and values reinforcement

Which term best represents the transition associated with challenges like sleep deprivation and balancing work and family?

Life stage transition

How many stages of life course are distinguished by sociologists?


Which cultural aspect significantly influences the expectations of older adults in China compared to Canada?

'Extended family living'

'Taking on the new role of parent' is associated with which stage of life course?

'Young adult'

'Diverse agents of socialization shape a person during different stages in their life' reflects the importance of what in human development?

'Social interaction'

What is the primary focus of secondary socialization?

Learning norms applicable to different social settings

How does secondary socialization impact a student pursuing a master's degree after completing an undergraduate sociology degree?

New habits and skills need to be added

What can children experience in terms of norms and values when transitioning from learning at home to attending school?

Conflict between old and new norms

In the context of North America, what did Van der Toorn and colleagues study regarding attitudes toward same-sex marriage?

Influence of secondary socialization on attitudes

What did Van der Toorn and colleagues identify as a strong influence on views of same-sex marriage?

Socialization within religious institutions

Which types of effects did Van der Toorn and colleagues identify in their study regarding attitudes toward same-sex marriage?

Direct and mediating effects

What is anticipatory socialization associated with?

Preparing for new positions or roles

Where does anticipatory socialization primarily draw from for learning social norms?

Family, school, jobs, peers, and media

What is the main mechanism through which norms and values are transmitted during early socialization?

Parental involvement

How has scientific evidence impacted attitudes toward parenting?

It has increased the emphasis on parental involvement

What concept pervades much of the literature on parenting, encouraging parents to dedicate their attention to their children?

Quality time

In what way do many parents view their role in their children’s upbringing today?

As critical

Despite the importance of parental influence, what remains unclear about its impact?

The exact mechanisms through which parental influence is exerted

What is the primary agent of socialization early in life according to the information provided?


In the context of socialization, what does 'reverse socialization' refer to?

Children influencing parents

How does birth order impact socialization according to the text?

Parents dedicate more time to first-born children

What characterizes the transition for young children moving from home to kindergarten?

Difficulties adapting to new expectations

How do schools contribute to children's socialization according to the text?

By reinforcing existing inequalities

What role does formal education play in reducing disparities among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds?

Exacerbating existing inequalities

How do low-income families typically experience school readiness according to the text?

'Poorer' readiness levels affecting learning abilities

What is a significant impact of schools on children's socialization process?

Introducing children to diverse peer groups and authority figures

Based on the text, what is a key goal of programs like Head Start for families in poverty?

Providing extra learning materials and home visits

What do young adults often do to familiarize themselves with workplace social norms before a job interview?

Wear more expensive clothing

What is a crucial aspect of professional socialization besides learning workplace rules?

Learning ethical standards

What did Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz demonstrate about early models of media influence in society?

Both A and B

How do the mass media primarily influence socialization according to the text?

As powerful agents that have a secondary influence

What is mentioned as a significant change in how socialization occurs due to the prevalence of digital media in daily life?

Parents have less direct control over children's interactions

What is mentioned as an average screen time per day for children and youth aged 5 to 17 in Canada?

Three hours

How does digital media play a significant role in socialization for children and teenagers?

By providing new means of interaction with peers and communities

What do parents seem to have less control over due to the prevalence of digital media?

Children's interactions

What is a common practice among Syrian women when introducing themselves in social settings?

Both A and B

'Social media play a role in learning about idealized representations of life and the self.' What effect does this statement suggest about social media?

'Social media can shape one's perception of life and self'

What is identified as an important first step for refugees from Syria to integrate into Canadian society?

Learning the language of their new community

What is a common challenge faced by refugees as they try to integrate into a new community?

Struggle to adapt to new norms and traditions

What role do many cities in Canada play in supporting newcomers to the country?

Establishing centers that facilitate intercultural exchange

What is a key aspect of the transformation brought about by social media in gender socialization according to the text?

Enhancing inclusivity in masculinities

What are adolescents and young adults prone to when using social media for identity construction?

Social comparison and feedback-seeking

What role does functionalism attribute to the learning of social roles in socialization?

Helping individuals know how to interact with others predictably

How does the text describe alternative forms of masculinity adopted by men today compared to traditional hegemonic masculinities?

Heterogeneous and diverse

What was the primary finding of Marshall et al.'s (2020) study on body builders on Instagram in relation to masculine identities?

'Body builders express negotiated and inclusive forms of masculinity'

What potential impact does social media have on individuals' mental well-being according to the text?

Increased feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem

What do adolescents rely on predominantly for evaluating the self during identity construction according to the text?

'Opinions of peers'

What is one way that colleges and universities contribute to the socialization of students, as mentioned in the text?

Preparing students for the demands of the workforce

What is a key predictor of educational attainment and success in university?

Social class

How does the text describe the struggles faced by working-class students trying to fit into a middle-class culture at universities?

It involves negotiating a balance between old and new social worlds.

According to Lehmann (2014), what did a select group of working-class students in a Canadian university view university as?

An opportunity for learning and upward social mobility

In what way can university be transformative for some students according to the text?

By expanding their knowledge and cultural capital

Why are dorms mentioned as significant places for student socialization in the text?

Because they represent a student's first experience living outside of a family home.

What did Lehmann (2014) find about the socialization opportunities provided by universities for a select group of working-class students?

The opportunities benefited the students and helped them adapt well.

According to functionalists, how is socialization primarily viewed?

As a top-down procedure through which individuals internalize social roles

What did Parsons' analysis reveal about the structure of the family amid social changes in the 1950s?

Divorce rates were decreasing

What concept introduced by Pierre Bourdieu describes intangible assets that enable belonging to social circles and feeling accepted?

Cultural capital

How does cultural capital impact a person's ability to mobilize resources and be successful in life?

It increases the ability to mobilize resources and succeed

What is one example of how cultural capital contributes to group membership mentioned in the text?

Understanding indie music and vintage fashion

According to conflict theorists, how does class socialization impact social mobility?

It preserves the status quo making social mobility difficult

What trend did Parsons note regarding the role of extended families in modern societies?

Decreased influence compared to institutions and teachers

What did Lareau (2000) find regarding socialization differences between boys in working-class and middle-class families?

Boys in middle-class families had more freedom in their play compared to boys in working-class families.

What did Lareau (2000) suggest about children from middle-class families compared to those from working-class families?

Children from middle-class families may have advantages over those from working-class families.

What is an example of gender socialization mentioned in the text?

Learning how to cook traditional meals

What role do images in school texts and media play in reinforcing traditional gender roles?

Reinforcing traditional gender roles

What is a key difference between gender norms in Syria and Canada as highlighted in the text?

Syrian women should not be addressed directly when their husbands are present.

What is a challenge faced by Syrian refugees from rural areas relocating to Canada as highlighted in the text?

'Maintaining the farm' is not a gender norm in Canada

How do globalization patterns impact challenges related to gender socialization as discussed in the text?

'Taking care of children' can differ significantly based on cultural context

How do gender socialization practices in schools influence students' career choices?

By promoting the idea that boys and girls should pursue different interests.

What contributes to the gender gap in careers like engineering and biochemistry as mentioned in the text?

Higher prestige and salaries associated with careers in the sciences for men.

What is a key issue pointed out by feminists regarding women's career advancement in the workforce?

Bias against women even when they are as qualified as men for leadership positions.

How do socialization practices perpetuate discrimination against women in the workforce?

By setting different career expectations for men and women.

What is highlighted as a clear sign of continued discrimination against women in the workforce according to feminists?

Gender pay gaps and underrepresentation of women in leadership roles.

According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do humans define themselves within the context of socialization?

By actively engaging in daily interactions

What aspect of socialization is criticized by symbolic interactionists in contrast to functionalist theory?

Passive internalization of norms and values

What term describes the idea that feedback from others is integrated back into the concept of self in Cooley's theory?

Looking-glass self

In symbolic interactionism, what role do social interactions play in developing an individual's self-concept?

Creating, negotiating, and transforming meanings

How does Cooley's looking-glass self concept contribute to understanding the development of self-concept?

By providing a reflective mechanism through feedback

What are some strategies mentioned in the text to mitigate the challenges of context collapse on social media?

Engaging in self-censorship

How does the text describe the relationship between roles and social behavior?

Roles guide behavior in various social situations and allow fitting into different social institutions

How does the text describe the dual impact of roles on individuals?

Roles both guide behavior in social situations and limit behavior by setting boundaries

What role do macrolevel influences play in shaping roles, according to the text?

Macrolevel influences adopt norms that are part of larger institutions individuals are a part of

What is a key component that influences a person's behaviours and attitudes?

Three core components of the self

What is a significant finding regarding the self's evolution over the lifespan?

New life experiences lead to changes in the self's characteristics.

How does social media usage differ between LinkedIn and Facebook, according to the text?

LinkedIn focuses on professional achievements, while Facebook centers around personal information sharing.

What view does Cooley's work support regarding the relationship between self-perception and external opinions?

Self-perception is heavily influenced by how individuals think others see them.

What is role conflict primarily caused by?

Incompatible social roles

What role do digital technologies, such as social media, play in encouraging social comparison?

They provide tools for constant social comparison through metrics like likes and comments.

What does the term 'code-switching' refer to in the context of social roles?

Switching between different social scripts

In the context of social media, what does 'context collapse' refer to?

The merging of different contexts

How do specialized social media platforms like LinkedIn differ from porous social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook?

They are less prone to context collapse

What does symbolic interactionism's contribution to identity understanding emphasize?

Dynamic interplay between societal expectations and personal choices

Which theory introduced the notion of social roles to describe behavioral adaptation across different settings?

Symbolic interactionism

'Anticipatory socialization' refers to:

'Learning in advance' for future social norms and roles

According to Goffman, what is the primary aim of adjusting one's self-presentation to fit social situations?

To control what others think about us

How does symbolic interactionism challenge traditional role theory?

By proposing that people have agency in performing social roles

In the context of social media, what characterizes the 'backstage' of self-presentation?

Unfiltered and unedited interactions

What distinguishes the 'frontstage' from the 'backstage' in Goffman's theory of performativity?

Frontstage follows social norms, while backstage is free from societal expectations.

How does Hogan describe the online presentation of self on social media?

As an effort to showcase a unique self

What impact does technology, like Instagram filters, have on the presentation of self?

It allows for more control over appearance

According to Bailey & Yost (2001), how are social roles and identities created?

Through reciprocal influence in social interaction

How does technology like Instagram filters impact self-presentation?

It allows for more control over appearance

Explore the intergenerational impacts of residential schools through the words of Robert Joseph, a hereditary chief of the Gwawaenuk First Nation. Understand how the lack of basic life skills learned in residential schools affected him and his family.

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