Grade 12 Science: Synthesis of Elements and Atomic Number

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10 Questions

What is the atomic number of an element?

The total number of protons in the nucleus

In which type of radioactive decay is an alpha particle emitted from a nucleus?

Alpha decay

What did Ernest Rutherford discover about the atom?

The positively charged protons in the nucleus

Which method is a possible way to synthesize new elements in a laboratory?

Neutron capture followed by beta decay

How was technetium first synthesized?

By bombarding molybdenum with deuteron in a laboratory

How was astatine discovered?

By bombarding bismuth with alpha particles in a cyclotron

Which element was synthesized from neptunium by the absorption of another neutron?

Plutonium

What method was used to synthesize elements 96 through 101?

Alpha particle bombardment in a cyclotron

How were super heavy elements synthesized?

By bombarding heavy nuclear targets with heavy projectiles

What is the heaviest known element?

$^{118}_{49}$Organesson

Study Notes

  • The text is about an episode of a science program for grade 12 students called "Science Cruella TV."
  • The topic of the episode is the synthesis of elements in laboratories and the concept of atomic number.
  • The periodic table has changed since its first arrangement by Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869.
  • Many elements were discovered and synthesized in laboratories, replacing some of the missing elements in the periodic table.
  • The show "Who Wants to be a Scientist" is featured, where a teacher named Leia answers science-related questions correctly to win a science laboratory for her school.
  • In the game show, Leia answers that an alpha particle, which has no electrons but two protons, is emitted during radioactive decay.
  • The atomic number of an element refers to the number of protons it has.
  • The mass number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons it has.
  • Alpha decay is one type of radioactive decay where an alpha particle is emitted from a nucleus.
  • Neutron capture followed by beta decay is a possible method for synthesizing new elements in a laboratory.
  • Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus of an atom, which is made up of positively charged protons and neutrons, and negatively charged electrons orbit around it.
  • Two Italian scientists, Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segre, synthesized element number 43 (technetium) in a laboratory in 1937.- Technician was the first synthetic element, derived from the bombardment of molybdenum with deuteron in a laboratory
  • Molybdenum was transformed into technician with the addition of one proton, resulting in a new element with 43 protons and 54 neutrons
  • The nuclear process of technician's synthesis involved the combination of deuteron and molybdenum, represented by the addition sign
  • Astatine was discovered in 1940 by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles in a cyclotron
  • Alpha particles, being a nucleus of helium, added two protons to bismuth, resulting in astatine
  • Two neutrons from the alpha particle were emitted during the nuclear process, making the atomic number of astatine 85
  • The heavier transuranium elements, including neptunium and plutonium, were synthesized through various nuclear processes such as neutron capture and proton addition
  • Neptunium was created by bombarding uranium with deuterons in a cyclotron, resulting in the addition of one proton and release of two neutrons
  • Plutonium was synthesized from neptunium by the absorption of another neutron, making the atomic number 94
  • Elements 96 through 101 were synthesized through alpha particle bombardment in a cyclotron
  • Elements heavier than element 103 are considered super heavy elements and are synthesized by bombarding heavy nuclear targets with heavy projectiles, such as the bombardment of berkelium with calcium to create tenozin
  • The heaviest known element is organesson, made through the bombardment of californium with calcium
  • Change is the only constant in the world, and many elements were discovered through scientific advancements, even during challenging times like the ongoing pandemic.

Explore the synthesis of elements in laboratories, the concept of atomic number, and the changes in the periodic table in this science program episode. Learn about alpha decay, neutron capture, and the discovery of synthetic elements like technetium and astatine. Test your knowledge on the synthesis of transuranium and super heavy elements through various nuclear processes.

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