## 15 Questions

What is the modern description of the electrons in atoms based on?

The mathematical solution to the Schrodinger equation

What is the quantum mechanical model of the atom based on?

The Schrodinger equation

What does the quantum mechanical model of the atom use to describe the location of electrons?

Complex shapes of orbitals

In which region are electrons most likely to be found, according to the quantum mechanical model of the atom?

Electron clouds or orbitals

What makes the energy of electrons in an atom restricted to certain values?

The mathematical solution to the Schrodinger equation

What can be said about the specific location of electrons in an atom based on the quantum mechanical model?

They are most likely to be found in electron clouds or orbitals

What quantum number determines the energy of an orbital and is related to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus?

Principal quantum number (𝒏)

Which quantum number describes the shape of the orbitals and is designated by letters s, p, d, f?

Angular quantum number (ℓ)

Which quantum number describes the orientation of the orbital in space?

Magnetic quantum number (𝒎𝓵)

What quantum number describes the angular momentum of the electron or the way the electron spins on its orbit?

Electron spin quantum number (𝒎𝒔)

How many possible values can the angular quantum number (ℓ) have for an orbital with principal quantum number 𝒏 = 4?

3

How many electrons can be found in a subshell with angular quantum number ℓ = 2?

10

What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in an orbital with principal quantum number 𝒏 = 3?

18

How many possible orientations can an orbital with angular quantum number ℓ = 1 have?

-1, 0, +1

What is the maximum number of possible orientations for an orbital with angular quantum number ℓ = 3?

-3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3

## Study Notes

### Modern Description of Electrons in Atoms

- Based on the principles of wave-particle duality, uncertainty, and the probabilistic nature of electrons
- The quantum mechanical model of the atom describes the behavior of electrons in terms of probability distributions

### Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

- Uses probability distributions to describe the location of electrons
- Electrons are most likely to be found in a region called an orbital

### Energy of Electrons

- The energy of electrons in an atom is restricted to certain values due to the quantization of energy levels
- The specific location of electrons in an atom cannot be precisely known, according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

### Quantum Numbers

- The principal quantum number (n) determines the energy of an orbital and is related to the average distance of the electron from the nucleus
- The azimuthal quantum number (l) describes the shape of the orbitals and is designated by letters s, p, d, f
- The magnetic quantum number (m) describes the orientation of the orbital in space
- The spin quantum number (ms) describes the angular momentum of the electron or the way the electron spins on its orbit

### Angular Quantum Number (ℓ)

- For an orbital with principal quantum number 𝒏 = 4, the angular quantum number (ℓ) can have values of 0, 1, 2, and 3
- A subshell with angular quantum number ℓ = 2 can hold 5 electrons

### Orbital Capacities

- The maximum number of electrons that can be found in an orbital with principal quantum number 𝒏 = 3 is 18
- An orbital with angular quantum number ℓ = 1 can have 3 possible orientations
- The maximum number of possible orientations for an orbital with angular quantum number ℓ = 3 is 7

Test your understanding of the quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic structure of atoms, main energy levels, sublevels, orbitals, and quantum numbers related to electrons in an atom. This quiz is based on Chapter 7 of General Chemistry 1 at Bauan Technical Integrated High School.

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