Forensic Psychology and the Legal System Chapter 1
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Forensic Psychology and the Legal System Chapter 1

Test your knowledge of forensic psychology and its intersection with the legal system with this quiz. Explore concepts like expert testimony admissibility, ethical considerations, and landmark legal cases that have shaped the field.

Created by
@MasterfulChrysoprase

Questions and Answers

Alfred Binet conducted a series of studies on how question types influence the accuracy of child eyewitness reports. What did he find?

Free recall results in the most accurate answers

What is the example of a professor arranging for a friend to enter her classroom, steal her book, and run out, and then asking her students to provide a description of the 'offender' in an effort to study eyewitness recall?

A reality experiment

What do forensic psychologists study in relation to eyewitness recall?

The effects of lighting conditions

What distinguishes a clinical forensic psychologist from a forensic psychiatrist?

<p>Forensic psychiatrists are medical doctors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the focus of forensic pathology?

<p>Determining the time and cause of death through autopsy</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which field does a professional examine insect activity surrounding a dead body to determine the time of death?

<p>Forensic biology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of 'psychology in the law'?

<p>A psychologist providing expert testimony in court on the accuracy of eyewitness identification</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did R. v. L.T.H. establish regarding youth interrogation rights?

<p>The police must explain youth interrogation rights in a language appropriate to the youth's age and understanding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the Supreme Court of Canada establish in R. v. Lavallee regarding expert testimony?

<p>Guidelines for when and how expert testimony should be used in cases involving battered woman syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is closely associated with labelling theories of crime?

<p>Becker</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Eysenck, which personality traits are at risk for criminal behavior?

<p>Extraversion and neuroticism</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which court case did the first psychologist serve as an expert witness in the US?

<p>State v. Driver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which country saw the first federal correctional psychologist hired?

<p>Canada</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which court case did the Supreme Court of Canada first define the criteria for admitting expert testimony from psychologists?

<p>R. v. Mohan</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is associated with social learning theory?

<p>Akers</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Sheldon's constitutional theory, who is linked to criminal involvement?

<p>Mesomorphs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the most interesting issue to forensic psychologists in Jenkins v. United States (1962)?

<p>Admissibility of expert testimony from psychologists on mental disorders</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the Supreme Court of Canada address in R. v. Mohan?

<p>Admissibility of expert testimony from psychologists</p> Signup and view all the answers

What demonstrates forensic psychology's legitimacy according to the text?

<p>Development of professional associations representing forensic psychologists</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of psychologist would not be considered a forensic psychologist according to the narrow definition?

<p>Psychologist studying how psychopathy influences patterns of offending</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is associated with differential association theory attributing crime to learning?

<p>Sutherland</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is considered the father of forensic psychology?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the U.S. Supreme Court lay out, which became a major milestone in forensic psychology?

<p>Daubert criteria for determining scientific evidence admissibility</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conducted some of the first experiments in North America on the psychology of testimony?

<p>Cattell</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the case of R. v. Oickle, what did the Supreme Court of Canada formally acknowledge?

<p>Jurors can be biased by different sources of information</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which psychologist conducted some of the first experiments in the United States on eyewitness testimony?

<p>Cattell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most ethical behavior for a psychologist hired as an expert witness?

<p>To provide testimony relevant to the case as they understand it</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who contributed to the understanding of child witnesses through studies on the suggestibility of child testimony?

<p>Binet</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Hess, how can law and psychology be contrasted?

<p>Law is idiographic while psychology is nomothetic</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which researcher showed the impact of extensive pretrial press coverage on eyewitness testimony, termed 'retroactive memory falsification'?

<p>Varendonck</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the American standard for accepting expert testimony?

<p>The Daubert Criteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who would be most surprised to hear about research showing that child eyewitnesses can be highly inaccurate, given his testimony in 1911?

<p>Julian Varendonck</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the 'general acceptance test' relate to?

<p>The admissibility of expert testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who examined interrogation records as part of his work on the criminal case of Richard Ivens in 1906?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is important about the case of R. v. Mohan (1994) for forensic psychologists?

<p>It dealt with the admissibility of expert evidence</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which psychologist testified in a case involving children witnesses, stating that child witnesses are likely inaccurate and prone to suggestion?

<p>Julian Varendonck</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to R. v. Mohan (1994), what must judges consider when determining the admissibility of expert testimony?

<p>The evidence must not violate any rules of exclusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is correctly paired with the work 'On the Witness Stand,' highlighting his significant contribution to the field of forensic psychology?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the case of White Burgess Langille Inman v. Abbott and Haliburton Co. rule about expert witnesses?

<p>Expert witnesses should be independent and impartial</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Binet's studies on the suggestibility of child testimony find?

<p>The 'report everything' instruction produced the most accurate recall</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the 'general acceptance test' relate to?

<p>The admissibility of expert testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did von Schrenck-Notzing's research show the impact of?

<p>Extensive pretrial press coverage on eyewitness testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the case of R v. D. cover?

<p>Not covered in the provided text</p> Signup and view all the answers

Alfred Binet conducted a series of studies on how question types influence the accuracy of child eyewitness reports. What did he find?

<p>Free recall results in the most accurate answers</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of studying eyewitness recall, what is an example of a professor arranging for a friend to enter her classroom, steal her book, and run out?

<p>A misinformation test</p> Signup and view all the answers

In R. v. Mohan (1994), what did the Supreme Court of Canada address when determining the admissibility of expert testimony?

<p>The necessity of the expert opinion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the researcher Alfred Binet find in his studies on how question types influence the accuracy of child eyewitness reports?

<p>Free recall results in the most accurate answers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is considered the father of forensic psychology?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which milestone laid out the criteria for determining when scientific evidence should be admitted in court?

<p>The U.S. Supreme Court's Daubert criteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conducted some of the first experiments in North America on the psychology of testimony?

<p>Cattell</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who published 'On the Witness Stand,' contributing to the recognition of forensic psychology as a specialty discipline by the APA?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

Whose research showed the impact of extensive pretrial press coverage on eyewitness testimony, termed 'retroactive memory falsification'?

<p>von Schrenck-Notzing</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who would be most surprised to hear about research showing that child eyewitnesses can be highly inaccurate, given his testimony in 1911?

<p>Julian Varendonck</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conducted studies on the suggestibility of child testimony, contributing to the understanding of child witnesses?

<p>Binet</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who examined interrogation records as part of his work on the criminal case of Richard Ivens in 1906?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is correctly paired with the work 'On the Witness Stand,' highlighting his significant contribution to the field of forensic psychology?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is associated with the recognition of forensic psychology as a specialty discipline by the APA?

<p>Hugo Munsterberg</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is associated with some of the first experiments in the United States on eyewitness testimony?

<p>Cattell</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who contributed to the understanding of child witnesses through studies on the suggestibility of child testimony?

<p>Binet</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the American standard for accepting expert testimony?

<p>The Daubert Criteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the case of White Burgess Langille Inman v. Abbott and Haliburton Co. rule about expert witnesses?

<p>They should be independent and impartial</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the Supreme Court of Canada formally acknowledge in the case of R. v. Oickle?

<p>Jurors can be biased by different sources of information</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to R. v. Mohan (1994), what must judges consider when determining the admissibility of expert testimony?

<p>The evidence must not violate any rules of exclusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the case of R. v. Mohan (1994) deal with?

<p>The admissibility of expert evidence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Hess label the dimension difference where lawyers adopt a more conservative approach based on coherence with facts and precedent-setting cases?

<p>Principles</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most ethical behavior for a psychologist hired as an expert witness?

<p>To provide testimony relevant to the case as they understand it</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference in dimension between psychology and law, as per Hess?

<p>Psychology is descriptive and law is prescriptive</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the 'general acceptance test' relate to?

<p>The admissibility of expert testimony</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the case of R v. D. cover?

<p>It is not covered in the provided text</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is associated with the name of the American standard for accepting expert testimony?

<p>Daubert</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is associated with differential association theory attributing crime to learning?

<p>Akers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the first federal correctional psychologist being hired in Quebec demonstrate?

<p>The significance of Canadian contributions in corrections</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which court case did the first psychologist serve as an expert witness in the US?

<p>State v. Driver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who is closely associated with labelling theories of crime?

<p>Becker</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Eysenck's theory suggest about high levels of extraversion and neuroticism?

<p>They are at risk for criminal behavior</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the Supreme Court of Canada first define the criteria for in R. v. Mohan?

<p>The admissibility of expert testimony from psychologists on mental disorders</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Akers associated with?

<p>Differential association theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Sheldon's constitutional theory link mesomorphs to?

<p>Criminal involvement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Becker focus on in his labelling theories of crime?

<p>The societal reaction and labeling of individuals as criminals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the focus of forensic psychology's legitimacy according to the text?

Signup and view all the answers

What is the most interesting issue to forensic psychologists in Jenkins v. United States (1962)?

<p>The admissibility of expert testimony from psychologists on mental disorders</p> Signup and view all the answers

What would a psychologist studying how psychopathy influences patterns of offending not be considered according to the narrow definition?

<p>A forensic psychologist</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Forensic Psychology and the Legal System

  • The Supreme Court of Canada formally acknowledged in the case of R. v. Oickle that jurors can be biased by different sources of information.
  • The most ethical behavior for a psychologist hired as an expert witness is to provide testimony relevant to the case as they understand it.
  • There is a difference in dimension between psychology and law, with psychology being descriptive and law being prescriptive, as per Hess.
  • Law is idiographic while psychology is nomothetic, according to Hess, representing a way that law and psychology can be contrasted.
  • Hess labeled the dimension difference where lawyers adopt a more conservative approach based on coherence with facts and precedent-setting cases as "Principles."
  • The "general acceptance test" relates to the admissibility of expert testimony.
  • The name of the American standard for accepting expert testimony is The Daubert Criteria, which states that scientific evidence is valid if it has been peer-reviewed, is testable, has a recognized rate of error, and adheres to professional standards.
  • The case of R. v. Mohan (1994) is important for forensic psychologists as it dealt with the admissibility of expert evidence.
  • According to R. v. Mohan (1994), a consideration by judges when determining the admissibility of expert testimony is that the evidence must not violate any rules of exclusion.
  • The case of White Burgess Langille Inman v. Abbott and Haliburton Co. ruled that expert witnesses should be independent and impartial.
  • The "general acceptance test" relates to the admissibility of expert testimony.
  • The case of R v. D. is not covered in the provided text.

Forensic Psychology Milestones

  • Sheldon's (1949) constitutional theory links mesomorphs to criminal involvement
  • Sutherland's (1939) differential association theory attributes crime to learning
  • Becker is closely associated with labelling theories of crime
  • According to Eysenck, those with high levels of extraversion and neuroticism are at risk for criminal behavior
  • Akers is associated with social learning theory
  • The first court case where a psychologist served as an expert witness in the US was State v. Driver
  • In Jenkins v. United States (1962), the most interesting issue to forensic psychologists was the admissibility of expert testimony from psychologists on mental disorders
  • Canadian forensic psychologists have made significant contributions in corrections
  • The first federal correctional psychologist was hired in Quebec
  • The Supreme Court of Canada first defined the criteria for admitting expert testimony from psychologists in court in R. v, Mohan
  • Forensic psychology's legitimacy is demonstrated by the development of professional associations representing the interests of forensic psychologists
  • A psychologist who studies how psychopathy influences patterns of offending would not be considered a forensic psychologist according to the narrow definition

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