NF 25 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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Which of the following is a major function of water in the body?

All of the above

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Chlorine

Which process involves the movement of water and solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration?

Diffusion

Which of the following is a sign of fluid and electrolyte imbalance?

All of the above

Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of water in the body?

Maintenance of hydrogen balance in the body

What percentage of water does the adult female body typically contain?

50%

Which of the following factors can cause dehydration to occur more quickly in the older adult?

Age-related decline in total body water

What is the main function of electrolytes in the body?

To maintain fluid balance

Which of the following is NOT a function of sodium (Na+)?

Formation of bone and teeth

Which electrolyte is the major intracellular cation?

Potassium (K+)

Which electrolyte is necessary for blood coagulation?

Calcium (Ca2+)

Which electrolyte is a buffer that neutralizes excess acids in the body?

Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

Which organ is primarily responsible for fluid excretion in the body?

Kidney

Which hormone is released by the posterior pituitary gland to regulate urine output?

ADH

Which hormone is released by the adrenal cortex to promote reabsorption of sodium from kidney tubules?

Aldosterone

Which process refers to the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane?

Osmosis

Which of the following is a sign of dehydration?

Cool, dry skin

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Impaired swallowing

What does the term 'tissue turgor' refer to?

Degree of elasticity of the skin

Which process requires cellular energy to move molecules into cells regardless of their electrical charge or the concentrations already in the cell?

Active transport

What is the treatment for dehydration?

Fluid replacement

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

The cells dehydrate and shrink

What is the term for a solution that has the same concentration of particles as the living cells it surrounds?

Isotonic

What process is essential to the life of cells and the balance of water and electrolytes in the body?

Osmosis

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume excess?

Crackles in the lungs

What is a potential cause of fluid volume excess?

Renal failure

How can dehydration be prevented in an older adult experiencing nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea?

Offering small amounts of water frequently

What can happen if a person takes in more water than they excrete?

Fluid volume excess

What is edema?

Excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid

What determines whether a person has fluid volume deficit or excess?

What is in the vascular space

What is the term for a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity?

Ascites

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Calcium

What is the term for a condition characterized by an excess of magnesium in the blood?

Hypermagnesemia

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume deficit?

Hyponatremia

What is the major role of sodium in the body?

Regulation of water balance

Which electrolyte is important in controlling the contractility of the heart?

Calcium

What is the function of chloride in the body?

Formation of hydrochloric acid for stomach secretion

What is the main function of bicarbonate in the body?

Neutralizes excess acids in the body

Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of water in the body?

To assist in maintenance of hydrogen (H+) balance in the body

What is the term for a solution that has the same concentration of particles as the living cells it surrounds?

Isotonic

What percentage of water does the adult female body typically contain?

50%

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

They shrink

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume deficit?

Rapid pulse

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Unavailability of water

What is the treatment for dehydration?

Fluid administration

What does the term 'tissue turgor' refer to?

Degree of elasticity of skin

Which hormone is released by the adrenal cortex to promote reabsorption of sodium from kidney tubules?

aldosterone

What is the main function of electrolytes in the body?

To maintain acid-base balance

What process refers to the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane?

Osmosis

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

They shrink

Which of the following is true about an isotonic solution?

It has the same concentration of particles as the cells it surrounds

What is the term for a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

Hypertonic

Which process requires cellular energy to move molecules into cells regardless of their electrical charge or the concentrations already in the cell?

Active transport

What is the main function of electrolytes in the body?

To maintain fluid balance

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume excess?

Crackles in the lungs

What can cause fluid volume excess in a patient?

Renal failure

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Inability to drink

What is the term for an excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid?

Edema

Which electrolyte is a buffer that neutralizes excess acids in the body?

Bicarbonate

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

Cells shrink

Which of the following is a major function of electrolytes in the body?

Transmission of nerve impulses

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Phosphate

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Inadequate intake of water

Which process involves the movement of water and solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration?

Diffusion

Which of the following is NOT a major function of water in the body?

Providing energy for cellular metabolism

Which of the following electrolytes is important in controlling the contractility of the heart?

Calcium

What is the term for a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity?

Ascites

Which of the following factors can cause dehydration to occur more quickly in the older adult?

Decreased thirst sensation

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume deficit?

Sunken eyeballs

What is the term for a condition characterized by an excess of magnesium in the blood?

Hypermagnesemia

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Chloride

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

Cells shrink

Which of the following hormones is released by the posterior pituitary and stimulates the reabsorption of water in the renal tubules?

ADH

Which of the following is NOT a major component of extracellular fluid?

Fluid contained within the cell walls

Which process refers to the movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached?

Diffusion

Which of the following is a major function of electrolytes in the body?

Maintaining acid-base balance

Which of the following is NOT a function of water in the body?

Maintenance of hydrogen balance

What is the percentage of water in the adult male body?

60%

What factors contribute to dehydration occurring more quickly in the older adult?

Age-related decline in total body water

What is the unit of measure for electrolytes in body fluid?

Milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)

Which of the following is the correct definition of an isotonic solution?

A solution that has the same concentration of particles as the cells it surrounds

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a hypertonic solution?

The cells dehydrate and shrink

What is the process that requires cellular energy to move molecules into cells regardless of their electrical charge or the concentrations already in the cell?

Active transport

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Inability to ingest food or liquids

What are some signs of fluid volume excess?

Weight gain, crackles in the lungs, slow bounding pulse, elevated blood pressure, and possibly edema.

What can cause a person to suffer from fluid volume excess?

Receiving IV fluid too quickly, tap water enemas, or drinking more fluids than they can eliminate.

What is the term for an excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid?

Edema

What can happen if a person takes in more water than they excrete?

They can suffer from fluid volume excess.

What is a potential cause of fluid volume excess?

Impaired elimination, such as occurs in renal failure.

What can help prevent additional problems in an older adult suffering from nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea?

Offering the patient small amounts of water frequently or an electrolyte solution such as Gatorade.

Which of the following is NOT a major function of water in the body?

Transporting nutrients and waste products

What is the term for a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity?

Hydrostatic pressure

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Phosphorus

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a hypertonic solution?

They remain unchanged

Which hormone is responsible for reabsorption of water in the renal tubules?

ADH

Which organ is the main site of fluid excretion in the body?

Kidney

What is the process by which substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached?

Diffusion

Which fluid compartment contains fluid within the blood vessels?

Intravascular fluid

Which of the following is NOT a function of sodium (Na+)?

Controlling contractility of the heart

What is the term for a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity?

Ascites

What is the main function of bicarbonate in the body?

Neutralizing excess acids in the body

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Phosphate (PO43-)

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume excess?

Crackles in the lungs

What is the term for an excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid?

Edema

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Impaired elimination

Which of the following is NOT a major electrolyte in the body?

Calcium

What can help prevent additional problems in an older adult suffering from nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea?

Offering small amounts of water frequently

What determines whether a person has fluid volume deficit or excess?

What is in the vascular space

Which of the following is a sign of fluid volume excess?

Increased pulse rate

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Impaired swallowing

What is the main function of electrolytes in the body?

Maintaining fluid balance

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

Water is drawn out of the cells by osmosis

Which of the following is NOT one of the main functions of water in the body?

To assist in maintenance of hydrogen (H+) balance in the body

What is the term for a solution that has the same concentration of particles as the living cells it surrounds?

Isotonic

What is the major role of sodium in the body?

Controlling the contractility of the heart

What happens to cells when they are surrounded by a solution that has a greater concentration of solute than the cells have?

They shrink and lose water

Which of the following is NOT one of the processes involved in the movement of water and electrolytes in the body?

Active transport

What is the term for the movement of water and suspended substances outward through a semipermeable membrane?

Filtration

Which of the following is NOT a major function of electrolytes in the body?

Providing energy

What is the main cause of fluid deficit in patients unable to take in sufficient quantities of fluid?

Inadequate fluid intake

What is the term for a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity?

Ascites

What is the term for a condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid?

Edema

What is the term for a solution that has the same concentration of particles as the living cells it surrounds?

Isotonic solution

What hormone is released by the adrenal cortex to promote reabsorption of sodium from kidney tubules?

Aldosterone

Which of the following factors seem to interact with other things to determine how long a person lives?

All of the above

According to the biologic clock theory, what happens when too many cells quit functioning?

The person eventually dies

Which of the following is NOT a myth about older adults?

Older adults are typically isolated from their families

What is individualized aging?

Viewing older adults as individuals

Which age group is considered the 'very old' in the older adult population?

85 and beyond

What is the current retirement age for full coverage under the federal Social Security system?

67 years

What is the most rapidly growing group among older adults?

The very old

What percentage of the population over age 75 has some hearing loss?

50%

Which theory of aging suggests that body cells and organs eventually wear out, similar to machinery?

Wear-and-tear theory

What is a major contributor to longer life?

All of the above

Which theory of aging suggests that people who remain interested and active will continue to enjoy life and live longer?

Activity theory

What factor has been a contributing factor to longevity in the past, with women generally outliving men?

Gender

Which of the following is a risk factor and possibly an early sign of dementia?

Depression

What percentage of older adults have dementia?

5% to 15%

What is the most common type of dementia?

Alzheimer disease

What is a positive behavior for healthy aging?

Regular physical examinations

Which of the following is NOT a common health concern in older adults?

Obesity

What is the leading cause of death in older adults?

Heart disease

Which of the following is NOT a sign of depression in older adults?

Dehydration

What is a potential cause of impaired cognition in older adults?

Misuse of medications

Which of the following is NOT a recommendation for performing patient education for older adults?

Use visual aids in large print and bright colors

What is short-term memory loss in older adults?

Problems remembering recent events

What is a potential cause of short-term memory loss in older adults?

Problems with concentration and attention span

What is the purpose of elder hostel programs for older adults?

To provide stimulating learning opportunities

What is the importance of good lighting in patient education for older adults?

To enhance visual aids

What is the term for the inability to recall much of yesterday but with intact long-term memory?

Short-term memory loss

Study Notes

Fluid and Electrolytes

  • Water makes up approximately 55% of the adult male body and 50% of the adult female body.
  • Water plays a crucial role in the body, including regulating body temperature, lubricating joints, and aiding in the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
  • Electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, help regulate various bodily functions, including heart function, nerve function, and muscle contractions.

Electrolytes

  • Sodium (Na+) is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate blood pressure and support nerve and muscle function.
  • Potassium (K+) is an electrolyte that helps regulate heart function and maintain healthy blood pressure.
  • Chloride (Cl-) is an electrolyte that helps maintain fluid balance and supports the digestive system.
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is an electrolyte that helps regulate pH levels and neutralize excess acids in the body.
  • Calcium (Ca2+) is an electrolyte that helps regulate muscle contractions and maintain healthy bone density.

Fluid Balance

  • Fluid balance is essential for maintaining proper bodily functions, including regulating body temperature, lubricating joints, and aiding in the digestion and absorption of nutrients.
  • Dehydration occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in, causing an imbalance in the body's fluid levels.
  • Fluid volume deficit occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in, leading to a decrease in blood volume and pressure.
  • Fluid volume excess occurs when the body takes in more fluids than it loses, leading to an increase in blood volume and pressure.

Hormones

  • The posterior pituitary gland releases the hormone vasopressin, which stimulates the reabsorption of water in the renal tubules.
  • The adrenal cortex releases the hormone aldosterone, which promotes the reabsorption of sodium from kidney tubules.

Osmosis

  • Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  • Isotonic solutions have the same concentration of particles as the living cells they surround.
  • Hypertonic solutions have a greater concentration of solute than the cells they surround, causing cells to shrink.
  • Hypotonic solutions have a lower concentration of solute than the cells they surround, causing cells to swell.

Treatment and Prevention

  • Dehydration can be treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes.
  • Fluid volume deficit can be prevented by drinking plenty of fluids, especially in older adults.
  • Fluid volume excess can be prevented by limiting fluid intake, especially in patients with heart failure or kidney disease.

Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances Quiz: Test your knowledge on identifying and managing fluid and electrolyte imbalances in patients. This quiz focuses on the risks and considerations for older adults, including signs of confusion. Perfect for healthcare professionals looking to enhance their understanding of fluid balance in older patients.

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