Extraction Methods in Pharmacy
10 Questions
1 Views
3.7 Stars

Extraction Methods in Pharmacy

Created by
@EthicalArtInformel

Questions and Answers

What is the primary consideration when selecting a solvent for extraction?

Polarity and affinity for the desired compounds

Which chromatography technique is commonly used for quick identification and purity testing?

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC)

What is the primary goal of quality control in the production of herbal drugs?

To ensure the quality and safety of the final product

Which spectroscopy technique is used for functional group identification and fingerprinting?

<p>Infrared (IR) spectroscopy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of authentication in quality control?

<p>To verify the plant species and identity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which extraction method is commonly used for plants with high oil content?

<p>Mechanical expression</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary advantage of supercritical fluid extraction?

<p>High pressure and temperature</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which chromatography technique is commonly used for quantitative analysis and purification?

<p>High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of stability testing in quality control?

<p>To evaluate the shelf life and storage conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which spectroscopy technique is used for molecular weight determination and fragmentation pattern analysis?

<p>Mass spectrometry (MS)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Extraction Methods

  • Solvent extraction: most common method, involves solvent selection based on polarity and affinity for the desired compounds
    • Macération: plant material soaked in solvent for a period of time
    • Percolation: solvent continuously flows through the plant material
    • Decoction: plant material boiled in water or solvent
  • Mechanical expression: used for plants with high oil content (e.g., citrus peel)
  • Enzyme-assisted extraction: uses enzymes to break down cell walls and release compounds
  • Supercritical fluid extraction: uses high pressure and temperature to extract compounds

Chromatography

  • Thin-layer chromatography (TLC): used for quick identification and purity testing
    • Stationary phase: silica gel or alumina
    • Mobile phase: solvent mixture
  • High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): used for quantitative analysis and purification
    • Stationary phase: silica or non-polar material
    • Mobile phase: solvent mixture with gradient elution
  • Gas chromatography (GC): used for volatile compound analysis
    • Stationary phase: non-polar material
    • Mobile phase: carrier gas (e.g., helium or nitrogen)

Quality Control

  • Authentication: verification of the plant species and identity
  • Quantitation: determination of the active compound(s) content
  • Purity testing: detection of contaminants and adulterants
  • Stability testing: evaluation of the drug's shelf life and storage conditions
  • Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP): guidelines for ensuring the quality of the final product

Spectroscopy

  • Infrared (IR) spectroscopy: used for functional group identification and fingerprinting
  • Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy: used for chromophore detection and quantitation
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: used for structural elucidation and identification
  • Mass spectrometry (MS): used for molecular weight determination and fragmentation pattern analysis
  • Hyphenated techniques: combination of chromatography and spectroscopy (e.g., LC-MS, GC-MS) for simultaneous separation and identification

Extraction Methods

  • Solvent extraction is the most common method, where solvent selection is based on polarity and affinity for the desired compounds
  • Macération involves soaking plant material in a solvent for a period of time
  • Percolation involves continuously flowing a solvent through the plant material
  • Decoction involves boiling plant material in water or solvent

Mechanical Expression

  • Used for plants with high oil content, such as citrus peel
  • Involves mechanically squeezing or pressing the plant material to extract the desired compounds

Enzyme-Assisted Extraction

  • Uses enzymes to break down cell walls and release compounds
  • Enzymes help to extract compounds from plant material

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

  • Uses high pressure and temperature to extract compounds
  • Involves using a solvent above its critical point to extract compounds from plant material

Chromatography

Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)

  • Used for quick identification and purity testing
  • Stationary phase is silica gel or alumina
  • Mobile phase is a solvent mixture
  • Helps to identify and separate compounds based on their affinity for the stationary phase

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

  • Used for quantitative analysis and purification
  • Stationary phase is silica or non-polar material
  • Mobile phase is a solvent mixture with gradient elution
  • Helps to separate and quantify compounds based on their affinity for the stationary phase

Gas Chromatography (GC)

  • Used for volatile compound analysis
  • Stationary phase is non-polar material
  • Mobile phase is a carrier gas, such as helium or nitrogen
  • Helps to separate and identify volatile compounds based on their boiling points

Quality Control

Authentication

  • Verification of the plant species and identity
  • Ensures that the correct plant material is used for extraction

Quantitation

  • Determination of the active compound(s) content
  • Helps to ensure that the extracted compounds are present in the correct amounts

Purity Testing

  • Detection of contaminants and adulterants
  • Ensures that the extracted compounds are free from impurities and adulterants

Stability Testing

  • Evaluation of the drug's shelf life and storage conditions
  • Helps to ensure that the extracted compounds remain stable and effective over time

Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)

  • Guidelines for ensuring the quality of the final product
  • Ensures that the extraction and manufacturing process meets certain standards and regulations

Spectroscopy

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

  • Used for functional group identification and fingerprinting
  • Helps to identify the functional groups present in a compound

Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy

  • Used for chromophore detection and quantitation
  • Helps to detect and quantify chromophores in a compound

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

  • Used for structural elucidation and identification
  • Helps to determine the structure and identity of a compound

Mass Spectrometry (MS)

  • Used for molecular weight determination and fragmentation pattern analysis
  • Helps to determine the molecular weight and structure of a compound

Hyphenated Techniques

  • Combination of chromatography and spectroscopy (e.g., LC-MS, GC-MS)
  • Allows for simultaneous separation and identification of compounds

Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

Quiz Team

Description

This quiz covers different methods of extraction in pharmacy, including solvent extraction, mechanical expression, and enzyme-assisted extraction.

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser