(Exam 2) Chronic Alcohol Consumption and Stem Cell Division

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29 Questions

What is a characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with regards to proteases?

MMPs cleave E-cadherin and lead to the loss of epithelial cell-cell junctions.

How do tumor cells mainly induce the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)?

By inducing stromal cells like macrophages and fibroblasts to produce MMPs.

How do secreted MMPs aid carcinoma cells in advancing forward within tissues?

By dissolving ECM molecules around carcinoma cells, creating spaces for advancement.

What is the mechanism by which MENA-expression tumor cells and macrophages migrate towards endothelial cells during streaming migration?

Using a CSF1/EGF paracrine loop and migrating unidirectionally along collagen fibers

What is the primary result of macrophages pairing with MENA-expression tumor cells during streaming migration?

Migration towards endothelial cells

What is the enzyme responsible for metabolizing alcohol in the body?

Alcohol dehydrogenase

What percentage of oral cancers worldwide are attributed to chronic alcohol consumption?

10%

In which model of cell division does one daughter cell remain a stem cell while the other becomes lineage committed?

Classical model

What is the specific chromosomal translocation associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)?

t(15;17)

Which disruption in the hematopoietic lineage leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?

Granulocyte or monocyte lineage disruption

How does the PML-RAR fusion oncoprotein induce leukemia?

By blocking normal myeloid differentiation

What is the primary role of excess glucose uptake and glycolysis in tumor growth?

Provide ribose for nucleic acid synthesis

Which of the following is a function of increased glycolysis in cancer cells?

Synthesis of serine and glycine

Why is lactate considered an important regulatory signaling factor in cancer cells?

It can influence gene expression and cell behavior

What is the fate of a significant portion of glucose-derived carbon in cancer cells?

Utilization for nucleotide biosynthesis

How does the catabolism of glutamine benefit tumor growth?

Supplies carbon intermediates for biosynthetic reactions

Which metabolic pathway is responsible for producing important intermediates for nucleotide biosynthesis and redox homeostasis?

Pentose phosphate pathway

What effect can tobacco smoke have on the body, in addition to being carcinogenic?

Inducing chronic inflammation

Which genetic alteration can lead to the expression of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes?

Mutation in the TP53 gene

How does obesity primarily promote cancer according to the text?

By inducing chronic inflammation

What is a common risk associated with inflammatory bowel disease mentioned in the text?

Greater risk of colorectal cancer

How can asbestos act as a carcinogen in addition to its inflammatory effects?

By acting as an inflammatory stimulus

Which agents can cause extrinsic inflammation leading to chronic conditions associated with cancer?

Both infectious and non-infectious agents

What is the structure of antigen-binding receptors and antibodies TCR?

Heterodimer made up of two polypeptide chains

Which signal involves cytokines released by T help cells to stimulate B cells?

Signal 3: Cytokines released by T help cell stimulate B cell

What is critical to the expansion of T cell responses to pathogens and tumors?

Dendritic cells

How do dendritic cells acquire antigens in peripheral tissues?

By engulfing antigens via various processes

Which cells present tumor antigens to T-cells via the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?

Macrophages

What is referred to as the events initiating the transition of conventional naïve T-cells from a quiescent to an activated state?

T-cell priming

This quiz covers topics related to the metabolism of alcohol by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, the formation of DNA adducts, and the link between chronic alcohol consumption and cancer. It also explores the classical model of stem cell division and its implications across different tissues.

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