Emerging Infections Quiz

IntuitiveSmokyQuartz2494 avatar
IntuitiveSmokyQuartz2494
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

49 Questions

Which stage of clinical infectious disease is characterized by the presence of fever?

Invasion period

What are the factors that influence the capacity of a pathogen to cause disease?

Communicability, immunogenicity, infectivity, and virulence

What maintains the beneficial homeostasis between humans and microorganisms?

Mechanisms that sequester microorganisms on the mucosal surface

What are the stages of clinical infectious disease?

Incubation, prodromal, invasion, and recovery

What is the hallmark of most infectious diseases?

Fever

How are infectious diseases classified by their prevalence and spread?

Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic

What is the term for the emergence of old infections thought to be controlled?

Reemergence

What is the term for the development of infections resistant to multiple antibiotics or vaccination?

Antibiotic resistance

What makes up the normal microbiome of the body?

Beneficial microorganisms

What can alter the symbiotic relationship with the normal microbiome?

Injury compromising protective barriers

What is the term for the period between exposure to an infection and the appearance of symptoms?

Incubation period

What is the term for the capacity of a pathogen to enter and multiply in a host and produce disease?

Infectivity

What is the process of infection that involves stabilization of adherence to tissue through surface receptors and subsequent invasion?

Colonization

What is the term for the process where tissue invasion results in direct confrontation with an individual's defense mechanisms, including complement, antibodies, and phagocytes?

Invasion

What is the term for the process where bacteria can protect against phagocytosis by producing toxins that destroy phagocytic cells and extracellular enzymes that digest complement, clotting factors, and immunoglobulins?

Evasion

What is the term for the direct transmission of pathogens that can occur by direct physical contact, ingestion or inhalation, or placental transfer?

Direct transmission

What is the term for the indirect transmission of pathogens that occurs from contact with contaminated materials, which can range from towels to food or through a vector?

Indirect transmission

What is the term for the successful spreading of pathogens requiring a variety of virulence factors, including adhesion molecules, toxins, and the ability to evade immunity?

Dissemination

What is the term for the process where mixed species of microorganisms form slimy biofilms and anchor themselves to various surfaces and resist immune defenses?

Colonization

What is the term for the process where bacteria attach through pili (fimbriae), surface glycoproteins, or complement-related receptors?

Colonization

What is the term for the classes of infectious microorganisms that include bacterial, fungal, parasitic, protozoal, and viral?

Pathogens

What is the term for the division of bacteria into several groups such as “true bacteria,” filamentous, spirochetes, mycoplasma, rickettsia, and chlamydia, and categorization as gram negative or gram positive?

Bacteria classification

What is the term for the specialized surface structures such as pili and flagella that promote adhesion and tissue invasion in bacteria?

Adhesion structures

What is the term for the toxic molecules produced by bacteria that may kill the individual's cells, disrupt tissue, and protect the individual against inflammation?

Exotoxins

Which process allows pathogens to alter surface molecules, making them resistant to protective immune responses?

Antigenic variation

What can some bacteria do to evade immune responses by binding to and neutralizing antibodies?

Release molecules that bind to and neutralize antibody

Which virulence factor of S. aureus promotes invasive infection and antibiotic resistance?

Numerous virulence factors

What is the term for the capacity of a pathogen to enter and multiply in a host and produce disease?

Pathogenicity

What is the term for the successful spreading of pathogens requiring a variety of virulence factors, including adhesion molecules, toxins, and the ability to evade immunity?

Virulence

Which type of infection is called mycosis?

Fungal infection

What do fungi have that promotes adhesion to epithelial tissue?

Polysaccharide surface molecules

What can fungi produce that promotes infection, evades immune responses, or causes cancer?

Toxins

What do some fungi secrete that can damage tissue and initiate pathogenic inflammatory responses?

Enzymes

What can some fungi do to resist lysosomal destruction and survive in phagocytes?

Survive in phagocytes and resist lysosomal destruction

Which mechanism allows some parasites to evade immune defenses?

Coating with self-proteins

What is the most common cause of fungal infections in humans?

Candida albicans

What is the primary mode of transmission for malaria?

Mosquito bite

What is the viral life cycle completely reliant on?

Host cell

Which factor allows successful viruses to bypass immune rejection?

Antigenic variation

What is the term for parasites that only reproduce within host cells?

Obligatory intracellular parasites

What is the hallmark of most infectious diseases caused by viruses?

Alteration of antigenic properties

What allows influenza viruses to evade protection from vaccines?

Rapid mutation

What is the primary location for the survival and invasion of Plasmodium parasites?

Liver

What is the primary location for the residence of Candida albicans in the human body?

Mouth

What is the primary mechanism by which parasites establish symbiosis with another species?

Breaking down connective tissue

What is the primary mode of transmission for the influenza virus?

Aerosol

What are effective means of countering infectious microorganisms?

Control of insect vector populations, modern sanitation facilities, provision of clean water and uncontaminated food supplies

Which procedure has been effective for diseases such as hepatitides A and B, rabies, and ebola?

Passive immunotherapy using previously formed human immunoglobulin

With antibiotic-resistant pathogens, what is receiving greater emphasis?

Development of new vaccines

Study Notes

Stages of Clinical Infectious Disease

  • The prodromal stage is characterized by the presence of fever
  • The stages of clinical infectious disease include incubation, prodromal, illness, and convalescence

Factors Influencing Pathogen Capacity to Cause Disease

  • Factors that influence the capacity of a pathogen to cause disease include virulence factors, host susceptibility, and the route of transmission

Homeostasis and Normal Microbiome

  • Beneficial homeostasis between humans and microorganisms is maintained by the normal microbiome
  • The normal microbiome is composed of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms
  • Factors that can alter the symbiotic relationship with the normal microbiome include antibiotics, radiation therapy, and immune suppression

Classification of Infectious Diseases

  • Infectious diseases are classified by their prevalence and spread, such as epidemic, endemic, or pandemic
  • The term for the emergence of old infections thought to be controlled is re-emergence
  • The term for the development of infections resistant to multiple antibiotics or vaccination is antimicrobial resistance

Pathogen Infectivity and Transmission

  • The term for the capacity of a pathogen to enter and multiply in a host and produce disease is infectivity
  • The term for the direct transmission of pathogens is horizontal transmission
  • The term for the indirect transmission of pathogens is vertical transmission
  • The term for the successful spreading of pathogens requiring a variety of virulence factors is pathogenesis

Mechanisms of Infection

  • The process of infection involves stabilization of adherence to tissue through surface receptors and subsequent invasion
  • The term for the process where tissue invasion results in direct confrontation with an individual's defense mechanisms is pathogenesis
  • The term for the process where bacteria can protect against phagocytosis is immune evasion

Microorganisms

  • The term for the classes of infectious microorganisms includes bacterial, fungal, parasitic, protozoal, and viral
  • Bacteria can be divided into several groups, including "true bacteria," filamentous, spirochetes, mycoplasma, rickettsia, and chlamydia, and categorized as gram negative or gram positive
  • The term for the specialized surface structures that promote adhesion and tissue invasion in bacteria is adhesins
  • The term for the toxic molecules produced by bacteria is toxins

Virulence Factors and Immune Evasion

  • The term for the capacity of a pathogen to alter surface molecules, making them resistant to protective immune responses is antigenic variation
  • Some bacteria can evade immune responses by binding to and neutralizing antibodies through the production of immunoglobulin-binding proteins
  • The virulence factor of S. aureus that promotes invasive infection and antibiotic resistance is alpha-toxin

Fungal Infections

  • The term for fungal infections is mycosis
  • Fungi have adhesins that promote adhesion to epithelial tissue
  • Fungi can produce toxins that promote infection, evade immune responses, or cause cancer
  • Some fungi can secrete enzymes that damage tissue and initiate pathogenic inflammatory responses
  • Some fungi can resist lysosomal destruction and survive in phagocytes by producing antioxidants and manipulating the phagosomal pH

Parasitic Infections

  • The primary mode of transmission for malaria is through the bite of an infected mosquito
  • The term for parasites that only reproduce within host cells is obligate intracellular parasites
  • The hallmark of most infectious diseases caused by viruses is the ability to evade immune responses
  • Some parasites can evade immune defenses by antigenic variation and immune modulation

Test your knowledge on emerging infections and the dynamic relationship between microorganisms and humans with this quiz. Explore the causes of death and morbidity from previously unknown and reemerging infections, as well as the challenges posed by antibiotic-resistant and vaccine-resistant infections.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

More Quizzes Like This

Pathogen Invasion
12 questions
Barriers to Pathogen Invasion Quiz
16 questions
Pathogen Transmission Methods
32 questions
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser