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Science Grade 4 - 4th Grading

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81 Questions

What is the primary component of Earth's surface crust?

Rocks and minerals

What is the thickness of the mantle?

5km to 70km

What is responsible for the formation of soil?

Variety of chemical, physical, and biological activities

What is at the center of the Earth?

Central core

What is the composition of soil?

Minerals and rocks, organic matter, water, and air

Which type of soil is characterized by having large spaces between its particles, allowing for easy flow of water and minerals?

Sandy Soil

Which of the following plants is likely to thrive in clay soil?

Pears

What is a characteristic of silty soil?

It is rich in nutrients and has good drainage

Which type of soil is ideal for gardening and can be bought at supply stores?

Loamy Soil

What is a drawback of chalky soil for plants?

It prevents plants from taking up minerals

Which type of soil has a dark color due to its humus content?

Silty Soil

What is the primary source of soil pollution?

Man-made waste

Which industrial activity is a major contributor to soil pollution?

Mining and manufacturing

What is a common agricultural practice that leads to soil pollution?

Use of chemicals

What type of waste products contribute to soil pollution?

Non-biodegradable materials

What happens to the soil when it is exposed to spilled oil?

It becomes unsuitable for cultivation

What is the result of pollutants mixed with air in the atmosphere?

Acidic rain

What is the primary function of rainwater in the Earth's water cycle?

To create natural cycles and conditions for ecosystems

What is the majority of freshwater stored as?

Glaciers

What is a characteristic of underground water?

It can spurt out in the form of springs

What is the benefit of saltwater to humans?

It is beneficial for traveling and maintaining natural cycles

What is an example of a source of freshwater?

Rivers

What is the purpose of water in recreation?

To provide a means of leisure activity

What is the primary function of water in the human body, according to the interactions between the body's systems?

Regulating body temperature through respiration

What is the primary mechanism by which water vapor in the atmosphere is converted into precipitation?

Condensation of water vapor into clouds

Which of the following is a consequence of inadequate water intake in the human body?

Body fatigue and soreness

What is the primary source of pollutants that contribute to water pollution?

Industrial waste and chemicals

What is the ultimate fate of water that evaporates from the Earth's surface?

It condenses into clouds and forms precipitation

What is the role of water in maintaining overall health and well-being?

All of the above

What is a primary source of water pollution from industrial activities?

Release of chemicals like asbestos and lead

What is a significant contributor to water pollution from domestic sources?

Sewage systems from domestic households

What is a type of waste that can directly contaminate water bodies?

Oil spills from tanker accidents

What is a major source of water pollution from human activities?

All of the above

What is a type of pollutant that can be released into water bodies through industrial activities?

Petrochemicals

What is the primary reason for the direction of wind from a cooler area to a warmer area?

Due to the difference in air pressure between the two areas

What is the term used to describe the temperature at which water vapor in the atmosphere begins to condense into liquid?

Dew point

What is the primary function of a wind vane?

To determine wind direction

What is the term used to describe the prevailing weather conditions over a longer period of time?

Climate

What is the process by which water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into visible liquid droplets?

Condensation

What is the primary reason for the formation of clouds?

Warm air rises and cools, causing water vapor to condense

What type of clouds are formed when warm moist air is forced upwards?

Cumulus clouds

What is the characteristic of Stratus clouds?

They are horizontal layered clouds stretching across the sky

What type of clouds are associated with rain?

Nimbus clouds

At what altitude do Cirrus clouds typically form?

High altitude

What type of cloud is characterized by unstable bulges that hang down below altocumulus clouds?

Mammatus clouds

What is the term used to describe the mixture of smoke and fog that occurs in polluted areas?

Smog

What is the term used to describe any form of moisture that falls on the earth?

Precipitation

What type of cloud is illuminated with pink, orange, and red colors due to the scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere?

Nacreous clouds

What is the term used to describe a person who studies the weather?

Meteorologist

What type of precipitation forms when raindrops freeze in the air?

Sleet

What is the process by which dew forms?

Condensation of water vapor on surfaces

What type of precipitation forms when ice crystals form instead of water droplets?

Frost

What is the characteristic of sleet?

Liquid precipitation that freezes in the air

What is the difference between frost and dew?

Frost is ice crystals, dew is water droplets

Which weather instrument is used to measure the speed of wind?

Anemometer

What type of forecast does PAG-ASA provide?

Weather forecasting

What is the purpose of a weather balloon?

To transmit radio signals about the weather

Which instrument is used to measure air temperature?

Weather Thermometer

What is a report that tells the weather of an area at a certain period of time?

Weather forecast

What is the primary purpose of a weather forecast according to the text?

To plan daily activities and take necessary precautions

What should you avoid doing in a flooded area?

Using electrical appliances

What is the safety tip when lightning is predicted?

Stay away from tall objects and find a sturdy shelter

What should you do if you are caught outside during a typhoon?

Find a safe place or get back home at once

What should you do if you are in a building during a typhoon?

Stay away from glass windows

What is one of the benefits of checking the weather forecast?

To plan your outfit for the day

What should you do if you are caught outside during a thunderstorm?

Find a sturdy shelter or vehicle

What should you avoid doing during a flood?

All of the above

What should you do if you are outdoors during a typhoon?

Find a sturdy shelter or building

What is the 30/30 rule for lightning safety?

If the time of lightning and rumble is 30 seconds or less, go and look for a safe shelter

What is a crucial safety tip during a flood?

Avoid using electrical appliances in flooded areas

What is the surface of the sun that has a temperature around 5500 degrees Celsius?

Photosphere

What are the darker, cooler areas in the sun’s photosphere?

Sunspots

How long does it take the sun’s equatorial regions to rotate?

24 hours

What is the outer layer of the sun’s atmosphere?

Corona

What are the gigantic bursts of energy released by the sun’s surface?

Flares

What is the primary function of the sun in the water cycle?

To provide thermal energy for evaporation

What would happen to the water cycle if the sun's thermal energy were absent?

The cycle would stop completely

What is one of the ways in which the sun supplies energy to plants?

Through its heat and light

What is the role of the sun in holding the planets together?

It exerts gravitational pull on the planets

What is one of the essential services provided by the sun to humans?

Heat and light provision

What is the meaning of PAGASA?

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration

Study Notes

Earth's Structure and Composition

  • The Earth has a layered structure consisting of the central core, mantle, and surface crust
  • The central core is at the center of the Earth
  • The mantle surrounds the core and has a thickness of 5km to 70km
  • The surface crust is the outermost layer and floats on top of the mantle

Soil

  • Soil is the result of various chemical, physical, and biological activities on and beneath the Earth's surface
  • Soil is composed of minerals, rocks, organic matter, water, and air
  • There are different types of soil, including:
    • Sandy soil: coarsest type of soil, allows easy flow of water and minerals, suitable for root vegetables like carrots, cactus, aloe vera, and oregano
    • Clay soil: fine particles, little to no space between particles, sticky when wet and hard when dry, suitable for shallow-rooted trees like pears and vegetables like broccoli and cabbage
    • Silty soil: smooth and soapy to the touch, rich in nutrients, good drainage, dark in color due to humus content, suitable for grasses, ferns, potatoes, and roses
    • Loamy soil: mixture of different soil types, ideal for gardening, suitable for fruits, vegetables, and flowers
    • Chalky soil: extremely alkaline, not suitable for plants, prevents plants from taking up minerals and drying out easily

Soil Pollution

  • Main source of soil pollution is man-made waste
  • Causes of soil pollution:
    • Industrial activities: mining and manufacturing, extracting minerals like iron and coal
    • Agricultural activities: use of chemicals like pesticides and fertilizers
    • Waste disposal: personal waste, non-biodegradable materials like plastics and rubber
    • Accidental oil spills: at fuel stations during storage and transport activities

Water

  • Water is a vital renewable source necessary for life
  • Uses of water:
    • Cooking
    • Washing clothes
    • Taking a bath
    • Cleaning
    • Recreation
    • Keeping plants alive
  • Sources of water:
    • Rainwater: major component of the water cycle, responsible for depositing most of the freshwater on Earth
    • Surface water: found in oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, and falls
    • Saltwater: from oceans and seas, beneficial for humans, such as for traveling and maintaining natural cycles
    • Freshwater: from rivers, lakes, streams, and falls, majority stored in glaciers and ice caps
    • Underground water: some rainwater seeps through the soil and is stored underground, sometimes used for irrigation

Water Cycle

  • No distinct start phase
  • Process:
    1. Water evaporates from the ocean, rivers, and other bodies of water
    2. Water vapor condenses in the atmosphere in the form of clouds
    3. Clouds grow bigger as more water vapor condenses
    4. Precipitation occurs when the water droplets in the clouds become too heavy to remain suspended

Water Pollution

  • Occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into bodies of water
  • Causes of water pollution:
    • Dumping solid waste in rivers, lakes, and oceans
    • Oil spills
    • Industrial waste: chemicals like asbestos, lead, mercury, and petrochemicals
    • Sewage systems: waste from domestic households, commercial buildings, and factories

Weather and Climate

  • Weather: day-to-day condition of the atmosphere
  • Climate: prevailing weather over a longer period
  • Weather elements:
    • Wind or moving air: blows from a cooler area to a warmer area
    • Air temperature: degree of hotness or coldness of air
    • Air pressure: force exerted by the air around us
    • Humidity: measure of water vapor in the atmosphere
    • Clouds: water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into clouds

Cloud Formation and Types

  • Cloud formation:
    1. Sunshine warms bare soil faster than grass, humid air rises
    2. As humid air rises and cools, water vapor condenses into clouds
    3. Clouds grow bigger as more water vapor condenses
  • Types of clouds:
    • Stratus clouds: horizontal layered clouds, formed when warm moist air passes over a layer of cool air
    • Cumulus clouds: puffy like cotton balls, formed when warm moist air is forced upwards
    • Cirrus clouds: wispy and feathery, formed at high altitudes
    • Nimbus clouds: dark and heavy, precipitation falls from these clouds

Weather Forecast and Instruments

  • Importance of weather forecast:
    • Plan activities and dress accordingly
    • Choose activities for the day
    • Plan places to visit
    • Think of appropriate meals
    • Plan ahead of time
  • Weather instruments:
    • Rain gauge: measures rainfall
    • Anemometer: measures wind speed
    • Barometer: measures air pressure
    • Weather balloon: sends radio signals with weather information
    • Weather thermometer: measures air temperature

Test your knowledge of the Earth's internal structure, including the core, mantle, and crust, as well as the composition of soil. Learn about the different layers of the Earth and how soil is formed through chemical, physical, and biological processes.

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