Digitalisation and Circular Economy Quiz chapter 9

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Laura Van Dessel

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37 Questions

What is the primary focus of the sharing economy?

Human relations and sharing skills

What distinguishes the circular economy from the sharing economy?

Focus on production and consumption relations

What is a key challenge for a sharing platform?

Insurance requirement due to the need for trust

What is the primary focus of Product as a Service (PaaS)?

Maintaining a product’s use through design, use, maintenance, reuse, manufacture, and recycling

What is an economical advantage of Product as a Service (PaaS)?

Cost savings for the customers when the product is only needed for a limited time

What is a challenge for Product as a Service (PaaS)?

Keeping an up-to-date status on the location and condition of all products

What is one of the main reasons for the need to transform from a linear to a circular economy?

The increasing scarcity of non-renewable resources

What is the current rate at which we are using the earth's resources per year?

1.7 earth per year

Which of the following is an example of a non-renewable resource?


By how much has the demand for non-renewable resources increased over the last seventy years?


What consequence does the diminishing amount of fresh water lead to?

Stress on other renewables, mainly food

What has overfishing led to?

A decrease of fish in the sea

What will happen if we continue to use resources at the current rate?

We will run out of precious resources in the next 50-100 years

Why is it important to distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources?

To understand which resources can be replenished in a person’s lifetime

What is one of the key principles of cradle-to-cradle design certification?

Eliminate the concept of waste and use renewable energy

What is the focus of the Ellen McArthur Foundation's 'New plastics economy' initiative?

Reducing the use of plastics in packaging

What is the purpose of Maersk triple-E's digital materials passport?

To reduce dependency on material suppliers

What is the main focus of circular supply-chain business models?

Offering access to fully renewable, recyclable, or biodegradable inputs as substitutes for linear ones

What is the key focus of digitalisation in supporting circularity?

Collecting and processing data from sensors and material flows

What is one of the 7 key points in DGBC's standard for circular buildings?

Prioritize regenerative resources in building design

What is one of the categories evaluated in cradle-to-cradle design certification?

Material Health

What is the main purpose of the 'Renescience' initiative?

Convert household waste to energy

What is the main focus of the recovery and recycling model in sustainable business management?

Optimizing the revenue potential of all material streams

What is the concept of upcycling in sustainable business management?

Converting an old product into something more valuable

What is the main challenge associated with the product life-extension model in sustainable business management?

Moving from a product-oriented to a product-and-customer oriented company

What is the primary objective of the sharing platform business model in sustainable business management?

Boosting productivity by allowing co-access or co-ownership of products

What are two variations of the recovery and recycling business model mentioned in the text?

Recovering end-of-life products and recovering waste from production process

What is the main challenge associated with the recovery and recycling model in sustainable business management?

Maintaining the quality of recovered resources

What is the goal of the product life-extension business model in sustainable business management?

Generating revenue through longevity instead of volume

What characterizes the linear model in terms of waste generation?

Mass production and consumption leading to high volumes of waste due to cheaper replacement than repair

What is a key aspect of the circular economy's approach to growth?

Designing waste out of the system, keeping products and materials in use, and regenerating natural systems

What distinguishes the cradle-to-cradle approach from cradle-to-grave in terms of environmental impact?

Cradle-to-cradle focuses on value creation in the whole value chain, while cradle-to-grave ignores waste and end-of-life

According to the principles of circular economy, what is emphasized in terms of water management?

Sustainable water extraction and maximum return to the biosphere

Why is it stated that a fundamental change is needed for the transformation from linear to circular economy?

In an adapted version, too many resources would still be needed

What is one of the potential benefits of the circular economy mentioned in 'The true potential of circular economy'?

Creation of value beyond financial value through social and ecological impact

What does the circular model aim to achieve in terms of product quality?

High-quality products that are expensive but last longer

What does the linear economy fail to account for in terms of environmental impact?

Biodiversity support and maintenance throughout the design and production process

Study Notes

Sharing Economy

  • Primary focus: sharing underutilized assets to reduce waste and emissions

Circular Economy

  • Distinguished from sharing economy by reducing waste and emissions through design and recycling
  • Aims to keep resources in use for as long as possible, extracting the maximum value from them
  • Key principle: design out waste and pollution


  • Sharing platforms: trust and safety concerns between strangers
  • Product as a Service (PaaS): changing consumer behavior and perception
  • Circular economy: fundamental change needed for transformation from linear economy

Product as a Service (PaaS)

  • Primary focus: providing access to products rather than ownership
  • Economical advantage: reduces costs and encourages sustainable consumption
  • Key challenge: changing consumer behavior and perception

Linear Economy

  • Focuses on take, make, dispose, and waste generation
  • Fails to account for environmental impact and resource depletion
  • Current rate of resource usage: 1.7 earths per year

Resource Management

  • Non-renewable resources: oil, gas, coal, and minerals
  • Demand for non-renewable resources increased by 94% over the last 70 years
  • Diminishing fresh water leads to food and energy insecurity
  • Overfishing leads to depletion of marine ecosystems

Cradle-to-Cradle Design

  • Key principle: design products that can be recycled or upcycled
  • Focus: design out waste and pollution

Circular Business Models

  • Product life-extension: refurbish and reuse products to extend lifespan
  • Recovery and recycling: recover materials from waste and recycle them
  • Key challenge: changing consumer behavior and perception

Digitalisation in Circularity

  • Focus: using digital technology to support circular economy
  • Key aspect: tracking and tracing materials for closed-loop production

Renescience Initiative

  • Main purpose: to develop a biorefinery that can convert waste into bioenergy and biofuels

Sustainable Business Management

  • Recovery and recycling model: focus on recovering materials from waste and recycling them
  • Product life-extension model: focus on extending product lifespan through refurbishment and reuse
  • Upcycling: creating new products from waste materials
  • Main challenge: changing consumer behavior and perception

Test your knowledge of how digitalisation is facilitating the transition to a circular economy, the importance of sustainable business management, and the legal and certification frameworks required for a successful transformation.

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