Computer Organization - Basic Principles and Architecture

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20 Questions

What is the primary objective of the course Computer Organization?

To understand how computer systems work and the basic principles

Which topic does Unit I of the course cover?

Data representation and computer arithmetic

Which aspect is covered under Basic Computer Organization and Design in the course?

Computer registers, computer instructions, instruction cycle

What do Register Transfer Language and Micro Operations refer to in the context of computer organization?

Registers, register transfers, bus and memory transfers

What does Instruction codes, Timing and Control refer to in the context of computer organization?

Different types of computer instructions and their timing and control mechanisms

What is the purpose of the I/O Processor in input-output organization?

To handle interrupts and exceptions

In computer organization, which memory technology is used in semiconductor memory?

RAM chips

What is the primary function of the Control Unit in a computer system?

To control the execution of instructions

What concept is associated with pipeline hazards in computer architecture?

Instruction level parallelism

Which type of mapping function is used in cache memory to determine the location of data?

Direct mapping

Explain the concept of interleaving in memory hierarchy.

Interleaving is a technique used in memory hierarchy to improve the memory access speed by dividing the memory into multiple modules and allowing simultaneous access to these modules.

What are the different addressing modes in the Central Processing Unit organization?

The addressing modes in the Central Processing Unit organization include immediate, direct, indirect, and indexed addressing modes.

What are the different types of I/O transfers in Input-Output Organization?

The different types of I/O transfers in Input-Output Organization are program controlled, interrupt driven, and DMA (Direct Memory Access).

Explain the concept of pipeline hazards in pipelining and vector processing.

Pipeline hazards refer to situations where the execution of instructions in a pipeline is stalled or delayed due to data dependencies, structural hazards, or control hazards.

What is the purpose of the Match logic in memory organization?

The Match logic is used in memory organization for implementing associative memory, allowing the CPU to quickly search for specific data based on content, rather than the address.

What are the basic functional units of computers, and what is their significance?

The basic functional units of computers include the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), control unit, input/output (I/O) unit, and memory unit. These units are essential for the execution of instructions and the processing of data.

Explain the concept of Register Transfer Language (RTL) and its relevance in computer organization.

Register Transfer Language (RTL) is a language used to describe the internal operations of a digital computer. It is relevant in computer organization as it helps in understanding the flow of data between registers and the control unit during instruction execution.

Discuss the types of micro operations and their significance in computer architecture.

The types of micro operations include arithmetic, logic, and shift micro operations. They are significant in computer architecture as they form the basis for executing arithmetic, logical, and data movement operations within the CPU.

What are the key components of the instruction cycle, and why is it important in computer organization?

The key components of the instruction cycle include fetch, decode, execute, and store. It is important in computer organization as it outlines the sequential steps involved in executing an instruction, which is crucial for the proper functioning of a computer system.

Explain the concept of error detection and correction codes, and their role in ensuring data integrity in computer systems.

Error detection and correction codes are used to detect and correct errors that may occur during data transmission or storage. Their role is crucial in ensuring data integrity and reliability in computer systems.

Study Notes

Computer Organization Course Objectives

  • The primary objective of the course is to understand the design and organization of computer systems.

Unit I - Basic Computer Organization and Design

  • Covers the basic components of a computer system, including registers, buses, and input/output (I/O) devices.

Register Transfer Language and Micro Operations

  • Register Transfer Language (RTL) is a notation system used to describe the flow of data between registers and other components in a computer system.
  • Micro Operations refer to the basic operations performed by a computer, such as data transfer, arithmetic, and logical operations.

Instruction Codes, Timing, and Control

  • Instruction codes refer to the binary codes that represent instructions in a computer's instruction set architecture.
  • Timing and control refer to the management of clock signals and control signals that synchronize the operation of a computer.

Input-Output Organization

  • The I/O Processor is responsible for managing input/output operations between devices and the central processing unit (CPU).

Memory Technology

  • Semiconductor memory technology is used in computer systems, which includes random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM).

Control Unit

  • The primary function of the Control Unit is to retrieve and execute instructions from memory.

Pipeline Hazards

  • Pipeline hazards refer to the problems that arise when a processor's pipeline is interrupted or stalled, causing a slow-down in processing.

Cache Memory

  • A mapping function is used in cache memory to determine the location of data, which enables fast access to frequently used data.

Interleaving in Memory Hierarchy

  • Interleaving refers to the technique of dividing memory into multiple banks, allowing for faster access to data.

Addressing Modes

  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) organization uses various addressing modes, including immediate, register, and memory addressing modes.

I/O Transfers

  • Input-Output Organization involves different types of I/O transfers, including programmed I/O, interrupt-driven I/O, and direct memory access (DMA).

Pipeline Hazards in Pipelining and Vector Processing

  • Pipeline hazards occur when a processor's pipeline is interrupted or stalled, causing a slow-down in processing.

Match Logic in Memory Organization

  • The Match logic is used in memory organization to determine whether a requested memory address is in the cache or main memory.

Basic Functional Units of Computers

  • The basic functional units of computers are the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), Registers, and Control Unit, which perform arithmetic, logical, and control functions.

Register Transfer Language (RTL)

  • RTL is a notation system used to describe the flow of data between registers and other components in a computer system.

Micro Operations

  • Micro operations are the basic operations performed by a computer, including data transfer, arithmetic, and logical operations.

Instruction Cycle

  • The instruction cycle consists of fetch, decode, execute, and store phases, which are essential for computer organization.

Error Detection and Correction Codes

  • Error detection and correction codes are used to ensure data integrity in computer systems by detecting and correcting errors that occur during data transmission or storage.

Test your knowledge of computer organization, including how computer systems work, instruction level architecture, memory system design, I/O device access principles, and instruction level parallelism. This quiz covers the fundamental concepts and principles in computer organization.

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