Children's Language Development
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Children's Language Development

Explore the functions of children's language development, including bilingualism and multilingualism. Learn about the importance of speaking multiple languages in today's global society.

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@CourteousDogwood

Questions and Answers

What are the main stages of language development in young children?

Before birth, the babbling stage, the holophrastic stage, the telegraphic stage, continuing development (post-telegraphic stage).

When does the acquisition of language skills begin according to linguists?

Before birth.

What did a study in 2013 reveal about newborn babies' recognition of language?

Newborn babies showed differences in sucking time between exposure to their mother's native language and a foreign language.

At what age do children typically enter the holophrastic stage of language development?

<p>Around the first year.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the telegraphic stage of language development?

<p>The stage that typically occurs between one to two years old where children start combining words to form simple sentences.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the post-telegraphic stage of language development?

<p>The stage that typically occurs between three to five years old where children's language development continues.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What experiment did Jean Berko carry out in 1958 to show the application of grammatical rules by children?

<p>He showed children a picture of an imaginary creature called a 'wug' and asked them to complete the sentence 'There are two ___'.</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically start to understand idioms, expressions with non-literal meanings?

<p>Around three years of age.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What kind of mistakes do children between three and five often make with grammar, providing examples?

<p>Children make errors like 'runned', 'mouse's', 'goed', 'swimmed', and 'wented' by applying grammatical endings to irregular words.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some developments in communication skills seen in children between three and five years of age?

<p>They start using question forms like 'Can I have one?' and negation like 'He doesn't have one.'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of a homophone mix-up in the text, showing a child's understanding of words that sound the same?

<p>Oscar's mix-up of 'winned' and 'won' in a conversation with his mother.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the understanding of the idiomatic phrase 'you're pulling my leg' mentioned in the text?

<p>It means 'you're teasing me.'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What kind of language structures can children typically understand and articulate by the age of five?

<p>Complex language structures and tenses, including the conditional tense.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the importance of connectives in children's language development?

<p>Connectives give linguistic freedom to express opinions and ideas.</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children begin to use language for different purposes?

<p>From the age of five.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What language skills are acquired by children around the age of seven?

<p>They speak fluently with a wide vocabulary and focus on reading and writing.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What types of relationships do children learn to adjust their speech to?

<p>Head teacher, classroom teacher, classroom assistants, bus drivers, dinner ladies, classmates, older and younger pupils.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do children understand the different meanings of words?

<p>Through lexical extension.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What language milestone do children typically reach by the age of five?

<p>They become independent conversationalists.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What must children develop to manage arguments effectively?

<p>Language strategies.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of reading and writing skills in language development?

<p>They are central to measuring an educated society.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do children understand about the use of language at the age of five to seven?

<p>They realize words can be used both literally and imaginatively.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do children express abstract issues through language?

<p>By using their language to express ideas about what is good and bad.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are examples of new lexical items learned by infants between the ages of one and two?

<p>Nouns, family names, pets, personal interactions, simple verbs, general conditions in the environment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the two-word stage of language development?

<p>When children start using two words together, like 'more milk' or 'train go'.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterizes the telegraphic stage of language development?

<p>Increased lexis actively used by the child, often by as many as ten new words per week.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is overextension in language development?

<p>When a child applies a word to a broader category than it actually represents, like using 'daddy' for all men.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is underextension in language development?

<p>When a child uses a word in a more limited way than its actual meaning, like using 'shoes' only for their own shoes.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the telegraphic stage named as such?

<p>It is named after telegrams, which were brief and contained only key information.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common feature of language acquisition in children at the telegraphic stage?

<p>Noticing more of the world around them and using a limited lexis to express themselves.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the child's speech progress during the telegraphic stage?

<p>Utterances become longer, more grammatically complex, and complete utterances emerge.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of information is usually included in telegraphic speech?

<p>Key information, often omitting auxiliary words and using a straightforward word order.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between the two-word stage and the telegraphic stage of language development?

<p>In the two-word stage, children use two words together without inflection, while in the telegraphic stage, utterances become longer and more complex.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some linguistic features that are omitted in the early telegraphic stage of language development?

<p>Prepositions, determiners, and inflections/suffixes</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did the child in Berko and Brown's (1960) study respond to the adult using the correct pronunciation of 'fish'?

<p>The child replied 'Yes my fis'.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of commands can children understand during the stage where they are likely to abbreviate longer words?

<p>Two-clause commands</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children often provide a running commentary about what they are doing?

<p>From the age of two</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of language stage follows the telegraphic stage in language development?

<p>Post-telegraphic stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some features that rapidly develop during the post-telegraphic stage?

<p>Connecting words, number words, words connected with emotions, family terms, colors, contrasting concepts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are hypernyms in relation to language development?

<p>Words for categories of things</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are hyponyms in relation to language development?

<p>Words within the categories represented by hypernyms</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do children learn thousands of new words during their development?

<p>By listening to their parents, siblings, and other family members and guessing meaning from context</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of conjunctions do children start using during the post-telegraphic stage?

<p>Coordinating conjunctions like 'and' and 'but', as well as subordinating conjunctions like 'because'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used to describe the social context of communication?

<p>Pragmatics</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Michael Halliday, what is the function of language used to fulfil a need?

<p>Instrumental</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which function of language is concerned with persuading, commanding, or requesting others to do things?

<p>Regulatory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for language used to express personal opinions, feelings, and identity of the speaker?

<p>Personal</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what function of language is language used to exchange, relay, or request information?

<p>Representational</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some examples of questions and answers that frequently accompany children's play?

<p>'Why is that bird singing?' 'Why is the Sun yellow?' 'Where does the sea go?'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which function of language is used by children to explore the world, learn, and discover?

<p>Heuristic</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does TV viewing impact young children's language development?

<p>TV viewing, even if educational, may have negative effects on language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for talk that is just concerned with getting along with others and has no informative value?

<p>Phatic communication</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the view that American English speakers are thought to have a greater level of friendship intimacy?

<p>Stereotypical view held by older British English speakers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is English considered a global language in the 21st century?

<p>English plays a significant role in world communications.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did children in the 19th century used to be expected to be?

<p>Seen and not heard</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the importance of children being active speakers and hearers in their world?

<p>Being active speakers and hearers helps children learn language effectively.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used to describe the different ways of speaking to different individuals in our lives?

<p>Social conventions</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the influence of TV on children's development compare to online activities?

<p>TV studies findings may apply to online activities as well.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What impact does TV viewing have on preschoolers' pre-reading skills?

<p>Preschoolers who watch TV may have poorer pre-reading skills.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it suggested that the dominance of English in the 21st century may be challenged?

<p>Non-native English-speaking regions are gaining political and economic power.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does exposure to real-life interactions contribute to cognitive language skills development?

<p>Cognitive language skills develop in the context of real-life interactions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the potential impact of images presented on TV on a child's imagination?

<p>Images presented on TV may restrict a child's imagination.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of English language in world communications?

<p>English language plays a significant role in world communications.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the babbling stage in language development?

<p>The babbling stage prepares the infant for the eventual production of words by allowing them to produce unrelated sounds resembling syllables.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does caretaker language contribute to a child's language development during the babbling stage?

<p>Caretaker language, characterized by higher and lighter tones, helps in teaching turn-taking and exposes the child to important words in their world.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the first smile in a baby's language development?

<p>The baby's first smile, at around six weeks, is accompanied by 'cooing' and repetitive sounds, marking the beginning of vocal development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the term 'holophrastic' used to describe the stage of rapid lexis acquisition?

<p>The term 'holophrastic' refers to the child's first attempt at grammar, where a single word may convey various meanings.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the average lexis a child acquires by their second birthday?

<p>On average, a child will have gained a lexis of about 200 words by their second birthday.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which consonant sounds are among the earliest pronounced by young children in English?

<p>The earliest consonant sounds pronounced in English are /m/, /h/, and /b/.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some examples of sounds that very young children may make when exploring their vocal repertoire?

<p>Very young children may make noises like spluttering, blowing bubbles, and 'raspberries' with their lips.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the babbling stage contribute to the child's understanding and eventual production of words?

<p>During the babbling stage, the child spontaneously produces sounds preparing them for word production, resembling syllable-like sequences in their native language.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the family and caregivers in a child's language development during the first year?

<p>Parents and family members contribute to the child's language development by speaking to them, even though the baby may not understand the specific meaning.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do the melodies of newborn babies' cries reflect the languages they have heard in the womb?

<p>Research has shown that newborn babies' cries follow the intonations of the languages they have heard in the womb.</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically reach the holophrastic stage of language development?

<p>One to two years</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do studies suggest about newborn babies' recognition of language in the womb?

<p>Babies recognize the language they heard their mother speak</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the significant finding from the 2013 study on newborn babies' exposure to different languages?

<p>Differences in sucking time between native and foreign languages were observed</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main contribution of the babbling stage to a baby's language development?

<p>Developing speech sounds and patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which stage of language development follows the telegraphic stage?

<p>Continuing development: post-telegraphic stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the timing at which infants in the 2013 study showed differentiation in response to vowel sounds of native and foreign languages?

<p>Within two days of birth</p> Signup and view all the answers

During the early telegraphic stage, which of the following linguistic elements are initially omitted by children?

<p>Connecting words and inflections/suffixes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the child in Berko and Brown's (1960) study initially call his plastic fish?

<p>Fis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common feature of children's speech during the telegraphic stage?

<p>Use of coordinating conjunctions</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what stage do young children typically begin to understand two-clause commands like 'pick up teddy and bring him here please'?

<p>Post-telegraphic stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of concepts can children typically understand during the telegraphic stage?

<p>Contrasting concepts</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what way did the child in Berko and Brown's (1960) study demonstrate an understanding of correct pronunciation?

<p>By correcting the adult's pronunciation of 'fish'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of language structure does a child typically develop the ability to sustain during the post-telegraphic stage?

<p>'Because' clauses</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which stage do children acquire skills to use language in more complex ways?

<p>'Post-telegraphic' stage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do young children typically learn thousands of new words through?

<p>Listening to their family members and siblings</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do babies typically start making repetitive sounds known as reduplication, such as 'baba' and 'gaga'?

<p>Around 3-4 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the term 'holophrastic' refer to in the context of language development?

<p>The child's first attempt at grammar</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which language did a German study find that newborn babies' cries followed the intonations of the language they had heard in the womb?

<p>French</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the baby's first smile at around six weeks of age?

<p>Enables the baby to develop its vocal repertoire</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of sounds are produced earliest by young children in English during their language development?

<p>/m/ and /n/ sounds</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically speak their first words, marking the beginning of the holophrastic stage?

<p>Around 12 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterizes the babbling stage of language development in infants?

<p>Production of unrelated sounds preparing for word production</p> Signup and view all the answers

What role do parents and family play in a child's development during the babbling stage?

<p>Initiating conversational skills and turn-taking</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Milk' being used to convey different meanings is an example of what in children's early language development?

<p>'Holophrase'</p> Signup and view all the answers

"One to Two Years - The Holophrastic Stage" is characterized by:

<p>Use of a wider range of initial consonant sounds.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of words do children between the ages of three and five typically begin to use more frequently?

<p>Longer words with three or more syllables</p> Signup and view all the answers

In an experiment by Jean Berko, what did children apply when shown a picture of two imaginary creatures called 'wugs'?

<p>Plural forms</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children start to understand idioms, such as phrases with non-literal meanings like 'you're pulling my leg'?

<p>Three years old</p> Signup and view all the answers

What kind of mistakes do children between three and five often make with grammar, as mentioned in the text?

<p>'Walked' instead of 'runned'</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do children typically start using auxiliary verbs like 'do,' 'can,' and 'will'?

<p>Three years old</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common feature of children's understanding of language when they mix up homophones like 'one' and 'won'?

<p>Understanding of homonyms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of language structures can children typically understand and articulate by the age of five?

<p>Complex language structures and tenses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What function of language do children start using between the ages of three and five, as mentioned in the text?

<p>'Requesting' others to do things</p> Signup and view all the answers

When are children more likely to apply grammatical endings to irregular words, leading to phrases like 'wented' or 'swimmed'?

<p>'From three to five years old'</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do children often handle more complex utterances by the age of three?

<p>'By managing two or more parts in their speech'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which function of language is concerned with developing social relationships and the process of interaction?

<p>Interactional</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what century were children expected to be 'seen and not heard'?

<p>19th century</p> Signup and view all the answers

What term describes language used to explore the world and to learn and discover?

<p>Heuristic</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Michael Halliday, what is language described as?

<p>'The creator of human society'</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which language distinction is mentioned as not present in English but used in French personal communications?

<p>'Tu/vous'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of speech progress is encouraged in children during the telegraphic stage?

<p>One-word utterances</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor contributes to a child speaking on language at home and another when outside?

<p>Social context and pragmatics</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used for talk just concerned with getting along with others and has no informative value?

<p>'Phatic' communication</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Please' and 'thank you' are examples of social conventions related to which language aspect?

<p>'Appropriate contexts' for language</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Me good girl' and 'tired boy' are examples of which function of language according to Halliday?

<p>'Personal'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of words are typically learned by children between the ages of one and two?

<p>Personal names and action verbs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What feature distinguishes the two-word stage of language development?

<p>Sequences of meaning without inflection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What best describes the 'telegraphic stage' in language development?

<p>Highly condensed speech with some grammatical complexity</p> Signup and view all the answers

During the telegraphic stage, what is a common linguistic challenge faced by children due to their limited vocabulary?

<p>Difficulty in expressing meaning with a limited lexicon</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the telegraphic stage, what is an example of 'overextension' in language acquisition?

<p>Using the word 'mummy' to refer to all females</p> Signup and view all the answers

During the telegraphic stage, what is an example of 'underextension' in language development?

<p>'Ball' referring only to a specific toy ball</p> Signup and view all the answers

What linguistic characteristic is typical of speech during the telegraphic stage?

<p>'Subject-verb-object' word order consistently applied</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common characteristic of children between the ages of five and eight regarding language development according to the text?

<p>They exhibit a wide lexis of thousands of words and focus mainly on reading and writing.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key difference between speech development and reading/writing skills development in children?

<p>Speech development is instinctive, whereas reading/writing skills need to be taught.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do children learn about relationships according to the text?

<p>They must develop the ability to speak appropriately to a range of people with different relationships.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a significant linguistic skill that children aged five to seven develop according to the text?

<p>Use of connectives to express opinions and ideas effectively.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key characteristic of children's language efforts at around the age of seven?

<p>Their language efforts are directed mainly towards reading and writing.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What development milestone occurs around the age of seven for children according to the text?

<p>Development of strategies to manage arguments.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is emphasized as a significant aspect of language development for children aged five to seven according to the text?

<p>Understanding different meanings and contexts in which words are used.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key language skill that children acquire around the age of seven according to the text?

<p>Developing fluency in speaking with a wide lexis.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a defining aspect of children's language efforts at around seven years of age based on the text?

<p>Mainly focusing on humor and plays on words specific to their native language(s).</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a primary area that children between the ages of five and eight concentrate on according to the text?

<p>Expressing themselves fluently with a wide lexis while focusing mainly on reading and writing.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential drawback of passive TV viewing for young children's language development?

<p>It may have negative effects on language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it suggested that time spent watching TV could be more productive for young children?

<p>It promotes better interaction with others than TV watching.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What impact does watching cartoons and entertainment television during preschool years have on children's pre-reading skills?

<p>It diminishes pre-reading skills by the age of five.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are children who frequently watch TV at a young age less likely to read books and other print media?

<p>TV viewing leads to poorer pre-reading skills.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key finding regarding the influence of TV on young children's language development?

<p>Passive TV watching may hinder cognitive language skill development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do images presented on TV potentially affect a child's imagination, according to the text?

<p>Restrict the child's ability to think creatively.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why might it be suggested that spending time interacting with real-life situations is more beneficial for young children than watching TV?

<p>Interactions with others promote language development better than passive TV viewing.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential disadvantage of TV exposure for young children under two years of age?

<p>It lacks educational benefits.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Children who frequently watch TV during preschool years have better pre-reading skills at the age of five.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The English language is no longer considered a global language in the 21st century.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Language development in young children is not affected by online activities such as gaming.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Young children are passive receivers of language and do not actively participate in speaking and hearing.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

The dominance of English in the 21st century is being challenged by the decline of its use as a lingua franca.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Television viewing has been proven to significantly enhance cognitive language skills in young children.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Children who watch educational content on TV tend to have better pre-reading skills at the age of five.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

English has not adapted or changed in different regions, resulting in a uniform form of the language worldwide.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Children who watch TV at a young age are more likely to engage with print media and read books frequently.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Spending time interacting with family and others is believed to be less productive for young children than watching TV.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Language Acquisition in Young Children

  • Language acquisition in young children is an extraordinary complex process that starts before birth.
  • Studies have shown that newborn babies recognize the language they heard in the womb, demonstrating a basic understanding of vowel sounds.

The First Year - The Babbling Stage

  • In the first year, babies make sounds, such as cooing and repetitive sounds (reduplication, e.g., "baba" and "gaga") as they develop their vocal chords.
  • The babbling stage continues throughout the first year, with babies making unrelated sounds that prepare them for producing words later on.
  • Parents and family members play a crucial role in language development by speaking to the baby, teaching conversational skills, and initiating turn-taking.

One to Two Years - The Holophrastic Stage

  • At around 12 months, children start speaking their first words, with an average vocabulary of about 200 words by their second birthday.
  • During this stage, children's words have multiple meanings, and they start to use gestures to facilitate understanding (e.g., waving arms or crying).
  • Children become able to use a wider range of initial consonant sounds in their words, with sounds like /m/, /h/, and /b/ emerging.

Two to Three Years - The Telegraphic Stage

  • Between two and three years, children's vocabulary expands rapidly, with up to 10 new words learned per week.
  • Children's language production and reception become more complex, with condensed sentences and omitted auxiliary words (e.g., "food all gone").
  • Children start to abbreviate longer words and interact more with adults to learn correct pronunciation.

Three to Five Years - Continuing Development

  • During this stage, children acquire skills to use language in more complex ways, sustaining conversations and combining ideas using coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
  • Vocabulary broadens to include connecting words, number words, family terms, colors, and contrasting concepts.
  • Children start to use longer words, including those with three or more syllables (e.g., "elephant" and "helicopter").
  • They also understand more words than they can say, and their language production becomes more fluent and accurate.

Types of Child Language

  • Monologues: Children often provide a running commentary on their actions, which develops into narratives, especially during imaginative play.
  • Dialogues: Children's interactions with family members and caregivers are crucial for language development, starting from day one.### Language Development from Five to Eight Years
  • By the age of five, children are able to function as independent conversationalists with others in their world.
  • They have developed the ability to speak appropriately to a range of people with different relationships, such as teachers, classmates, and family members.
  • Children learn to use different registers or levels of formality in their speech depending on the situation.

Language Skills of Children Aged Five to Seven

  • Children are good at speaking and expressing requests and ideas using connectives (e.g. "because", "as").
  • They begin to understand the different meanings of a word and the context in which each meaning is used.
  • Children start to develop their imagination through story reading and creative writing.
  • They can use language for different purposes, such as speaking fluently, although most of their conversation may relate to themselves and their own world.

Language Skills Acquired by Children from the Age of Seven

  • Children speak fluently with a wide lexis of several thousand words.
  • Their language efforts are directed mainly towards reading and writing.
  • Children develop mastery of humor and plays on words, specific to their native language(s).
  • They learn to express abstract ideas and manage arguments.

The Functions of Children's Language

  • Michael Halliday identified seven functions of language:
    • Instrumental (e.g. obtaining food, comfort)
    • Regulatory (e.g. influencing others' behavior)
    • Interactional (e.g. developing social relationships)
    • Personal (e.g. expressing opinions, feelings, and identity)
    • Representational (e.g. exchanging, relaying, or requesting information)
    • Heuristic (e.g. exploring the world, learning, and discovering)
    • Imaginative (e.g. exploring the imagination, creating imaginary worlds)

Pragmatics and Communication

  • Pragmatics is the social context of language, including the appropriate ways of speaking to different individuals.
  • Children learn many social conventions subconsciously, but may also be taught explicitly.
  • Pragmatics is related to other features of a society's accepted ways of communication, which can change over time.

The Influence of TV and Online Gaming on Children's Language Development

  • Research studies suggest that TV provides no educational benefits for children under two.
  • Time spent watching TV could be spent more productively interacting with family and others.
  • Passive TV viewing may not develop cognitive language skills, which develop in the context of real-life interaction.
  • Online gaming may have similar effects on language development.

Language and Communication

  • Language spreads through the power and influence of those who speak it.
  • English is a global language, used as a common form of communication in many countries.
  • The English language has changed and adapted in different regions, resulting in different forms of the language.

The Stage of Language Acquisition

  • The main stages of language development are:
    • Before birth
    • The babbling stage (0-1 year)
    • The holophrastic stage (1-2 years)
    • The telegraphic stage (2-3 years)
    • Continuing development (3-5 years)
  • Each stage builds on the previous one, and children go through them in a specific order, although not all at the same age.

The Babbling Stage

  • Newborn babies recognize the language they heard in the womb.
  • Babies start to make sounds, such as "cooing" and repetitive sounds, from around six weeks.
  • The babbling stage continues throughout the child's first year.
  • Caretaker language, spoken by family and friends, helps the child's development by speaking to them.

The Holophrastic Stage

  • This stage is characterized by rapid lexis acquisition and basic syntax development.
  • Children's first words are usually spoken at around 12 months.
  • The child's language is limited by their understanding of what is said to them.
  • Key features of language acquisition between 1-2 years include:
    • Learning new lexical items, such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
    • Starting to use two words together.
    • Establishing a basic conversational pattern.

The Telegraphic Stage

  • This stage is characterized by a huge increase in lexis acquisition, with children learning around 10 new words per week.

  • Children's language is still limited, leading to overextension and underextension.

  • The telegraphic stage follows on from the two-word stage, with children's utterances becoming longer and more grammatically complex.

  • Children's language is still condensed, with a focus on key information.### Overview of Language Development in Children

  • Acquisition of language skills is an extremely complex process that begins before birth.

  • Newborn babies recognize the language they heard their mother speak during the later stages of pregnancy.

Language Development Stages

Before Birth

  • Language development begins before birth, with babies recognizing the language they heard in the womb.

0-1 Year - Babbling Stage

  • Infants start to babble and make cooing sounds around 2-3 months.
  • Children start to develop language reception and production skills.

1-2 Years - Holophrastic Stage

  • Children start using one-word sentences.
  • Vocabulary grows rapidly, and children start to understand simple commands.

2-3 Years - Telegraphic Stage

  • Children start to use two-word sentences.
  • Grammar and vocabulary continue to develop.
  • Children begin to understand contrasting concepts (e.g., hot and cold).

3-5 Years - Post-Telegraphic Stage

  • Children's language skills improve rapidly.
  • They learn to use connecting words (e.g., because, and) and understand abstract ideas.

Language Skills from Five to Eight Years

  • Children become fluent and independent conversationalists.
  • They learn to use language for different purposes (e.g., humor, play).
  • Reading and writing skills develop, and children understand the difference between literal and imaginative language use.

Language Development from Five to Eight Years

  • Children's vocabulary expands, and they learn to use language for different purposes.
  • They develop humor and play on words specific to their native language(s).
  • Children become more aware of different language styles and situations.

Functions of Children's Language (Halliday)

  • Instrumental: Language used to fulfill a need.
  • Regulatory: Language used to influence others' behavior.
  • Interactional: Language used to develop social relationships.
  • Personal: Language used to express personal opinions, feelings, and identity.
  • Representational: Language used to exchange, relay, or request information.
  • Heuristic: Language used to explore the world and learn.
  • Imaginative: Language used to explore the imagination.

The Influence of TV and Online Gaming on Children's Language Development

  • Research studies have shown that television has no educational benefits for children under two.
  • Passive TV viewing can negatively affect young children's language development.
  • Online gaming may have similar effects.
  • Debate continues about the impact of these activities on language development.

Language and Communication

  • English is a global language, spreading through the power and influence of its speakers.
  • Different regions have adapted the language in unique ways.
  • Debate exists about the relative statuses of these different forms of English.
  • The dominance of English in the 21st century may be challenged as non-native English-speaking regions gain power.

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