Chapter 5: DNA Replication, Repair, and Transposons Part 3
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Chapter 5: DNA Replication, Repair, and Transposons Part 3

Test your understanding of DNA repair mechanisms, including endogenous and exogenous factors, and how DNA damage is removed through multiple pathways. Learn about the importance of DNA repair in maintaining DNA sequence integrity and its impact on the cell cycle.

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@CalmFairy

Questions and Answers

What is the process by which a double-strand break is restored?

Nonhomologous end joining

What type of transposons move by replicating themselves?

Some DNA-only transposons

What is the main function of the 'transposase' in a transposon?

To cause the transposon to insert into a new DNA

What is the role of DNA-only transposons in bacteria?

<p>To cause the spread of antibiotic resistance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between retroviral-like retrotransposons and retroviruses?

<p>Retroviral-like retrotransposons cannot move from cell to cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the percentage of the human genome composed of nonretroviral retrotransposons?

<p>A large fraction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What would occur if DNA damage is not repaired?

<p>DNA sequences would rapidly change</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do DNA-only transposons move by a cut-and-paste mechanism?

<p>By duplicating themselves at the insertion site</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of transposons in some vertebrates?

<p>To develop the immune system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of DNA damage occurs due to exposure to UV light?

<p>Pyrimidine dimer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of organism is more prone to mutations due to DNA damage?

<p>Organisms with single-strand DNA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of a double-strand break in DNA?

<p>The breakdown of chromosomes into small fragments</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the complementary strand in DNA repair?

<p>It remains intact and restores the correct nucleotide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of uncleared thymine dimers?

<p>The deletion of one of the base pairs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the addition of a methyl or ethyl group to DNA?

<p>Alkylation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of DNA damage on the cell cycle?

<p>It delays the progression of the cell cycle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism of movement for DNA-only transposons?

<p>Replicating and moving to a new position</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of RNA virus does not require a primer to make a complementary RNA copy?

<p>SARS-CoV-2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the direction of synthesis for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA?

<p>3'-to-5'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the replicase complex in SARS-CoV-2?

<p>Replication of viral RNA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of retroviral-like retrotransposons?

<p>Cannot move from cell to cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between retroviral-like retrotransposons and retroviruses?

<p>The ability to move from cell to cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of nonretroviral retrotransposons?

<p>Make up a large fraction of the human genome</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two main subclasses of nonretroviral retrotransposons?

<p>LINEs and SINEs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the enzyme encoded by the mRNA of retroviral-like retrotransposons?

<p>Reverse transcriptase and integrase</p> Signup and view all the answers

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