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BIO 102: Unit 3 Specialized Cells and Cell Signaling Exam Study Guide

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45 Questions

What is the function of RNA?

To carry the genetic information for protein synthesis

Which of the following nitrogenous bases is only found in DNA?

Adenine (A)

How many rings are present in pyrimidines?

One

Which part of a nucleotide is the portion without any phosphate groups?

Nucleoside

What is the main function of DNA?

Carrying the genetic information for protein synthesis

What is the correct order of the stages in mitosis?

Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

Which phase of the cell cycle comes after DNA replication?

G2 phase

What is the function of DNA polymerase?

Adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand during replication

Where is RNA usually found and stays in the cell?

Nucleus

Which type of nucleic acid has one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose?

Deoxyribose

What is the main function of primase at a replication fork?

Synthesizes RNA primers using the parental DNA as a template

Which enzyme is involved in breaking, swiveling, and rejoining the parental DNA ahead of the replication fork?

Topoisomerase

What is a key feature of G2 phase checkpoint in the cell cycle?

Prevents cells from entering mitosis with damaged DNA

What is a consequence if cell division goes awry?

The end of continuity of life

What is the main difference between the leading and lagging strands in DNA replication?

Leading strand forms short fragments discontinuously

What is the main function of helicase during DNA replication?

Unwinding DNA at the origins of replication

Which protein is responsible for stabilizing unpaired DNA strands during replication?

Single-stranded binding proteins (SSBs)

What is the function of DNA ligase in DNA replication?

Sealing DNA fragments together

Which enzyme adds complementary bases to the leading strand during DNA replication?

DNA Polymerase III

What is the main role of an operator in a bacterial operon?

Inhibiting gene transcription

What is the main function of a control element in gene regulation?

Regulate transcription by binding to a transcription factor

In inducible operons, like the Lac operon, when does the repressor leave the operator?

When lactose is present

What is the function of a tumor suppressor gene?

Inhibit cell growth

What is the role of tryptophan in repressible operons like the Trp operon?

Acts as a corepressor to stop production

What is the common feature among paracrine, synaptic, and endocrine signaling?

Release of ligands to reach target cells

What is the main function of a ligand-gated ion channel?

Allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions

In cell signaling, what is the role of a second messenger?

Relays a signal to a cell's interior

What is a characteristic of negative feedback loops in physiology?

Primary mechanism of homeostasis

What is the main purpose of endocrine (hormonal) signaling?

Sends hormones through body fluids to affect distant target cells

Which term best describes the process where a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein in a lock-and-key fashion?

Reception

What is the role of a second messenger in cellular signaling?

Transmits a signal to the cell's interior

Where are intracellular receptors typically located?

In the cytoplasm or nucleus

How does an autocrine signaling mechanism work?

Affects the same cell that produces the signaling molecule

What type of signaling involves physical contact between cells?

Juxtacrine

Which type of receptors respond to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating G proteins?

G protein-coupled receptors

In which type of signaling, hormones typically travel through the circulatory system?

Endocrine

What is the primary function of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system?

Coordinates the endocrine and nervous systems

What is the role of negative feedback in physiological regulation?

Maintains homeostasis by counteracting changes

Which gland secretes hormones directly into interstitial fluid?

Pituitary gland

What is the process by which an end product of a physiological process speeds up that process?

Positive feedback

What is the function of a second messenger in cellular signaling?

Relays a signal to a cell's interior

Define apoptosis and its significance.

Cell kills itself; Leads to cell death when something is wrong.

What is the main difference between autocrine and paracrine signaling?

Autocrine acts on the same cell that produces it, while paracrine acts on nearby cells.

Explain the role of epinephrine in the body.

Mediates 'fight or flight' responses to short-term stresses.

Define negative feedback and provide an example in the context of physiology.

Accumulation of end product slows the process; Primary mechanism of homeostasis.

Prepare for your BIO 102 exam on Specialized Cells and Cell Signaling with this study guide focusing on topics like cell division, nucleotides, and the molecular basis of inheritance. Includes multiple-choice questions and short answer questions.

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