Anemia: Clinical Features and Classification

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31 Questions

What is the classification of anemia based on etiology?

Anemia of blood loss

What is the main consequence of anemia?

Reduced oxygen carrying capacity

What is the condition characterized by a severe anemia due to incompatible blood types between the mother and the baby?

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Which disorder is characterized by the presence of abnormally large and immature red blood cells?

Megaloblastic anemia

What is the main clinical feature of acute blood loss anemia?

Any clinical effects are mainly due to the loss of intravascular volume; shock and/or death can result

What is the most common form of nutritional deficiency worldwide?

Iron deficiency

Which condition causes abnormal blood clot formation throughout small blood vessels, leading to low platelet levels, potential organ damage and anemia?

Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura

Which genetic disorder results in red cells that are spheroidal, less deformable, and vulnerable to destruction?

Hereditary spherocytosis

Which disorder is characterized by accelerated destruction of red cells?

Hemolytic anemia

What causes chronic inflammatory disorders to disrupt the normal regulation of iron metabolism and contribute to anemia?

Decreased red blood cell production and impaired iron utilization

What is the primary defect in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency that makes red cells vulnerable to injury by oxidants?

Defect in the red cell membrane

Which type of anemia is characterized by accelerated destruction of red blood cells?

Hemolytic anemia

What condition causes chronic inflammatory disorders to disrupt the normal regulation of iron metabolism and contribute to anemia?

Anemia of chronic inflammation

In which type of anemia is there impaired red cell production?

Aplastic anemia

Which disorder is caused by mutations that decrease the rate of synthesis of α- or ß-globin chains?

Sickle cell anemia

What is the primary defect in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency that makes red cells vulnerable to injury by oxidants?

Enzyme deficiencies

What is the most common cause of anemia worldwide, especially in developing countries?

Low dietary intake of iron

Which disorder is characterized by abnormal blood clot formation throughout small blood vessels, leading to low platelet levels, potential organ damage, and anemia?

Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura

What is the condition where a fetus experiences severe anemia due to incompatible blood types between the mother and the baby?

Erythroblastosis fetalis

What is the disorder in which the bone marrow fails to produce enough blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets?

Aplastic anemia

Which genetic disorder results in red cells that are spheroidal, less deformable, and vulnerable to destruction?

Hereditary spherocytosis

What is the primary defect in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency that makes red cells vulnerable to injury by oxidants?

Decreased ability to neutralize oxidants

In which condition does interstitial bleeding allow recapture of red cell iron, but bleeding into the gut or externally can lead to iron deficiency and hamper restoration of normal RBC counts?

Chronic blood loss

Which genetic disorder results in red cells that are spheroidal, less deformable, and vulnerable to destruction?

Hereditary Spherocytosis

What is the main clinical feature of acute blood loss anemia?

Shock and/or death

In which type of anemia is there impaired red cell production?

Aplastic anemia

Which genetic disorder is characterized by mutations that decrease the rate of synthesis of α- or ß-globin chains?

Thalassemia syndromes

What causes chronic inflammatory disorders to disrupt the normal regulation of iron metabolism and contribute to anemia?

Impaired iron utilization

Which disorder is characterized by abnormal blood clot formation throughout small blood vessels, leading to low platelet levels, potential organ damage, and anemia?

Thrombocytop enia purpura

What is the most common form of nutritional deficiency worldwide?

Iron deficiency

Which type of anemia is characterized by accelerated destruction of red blood cells?

Hemolytic anemia

Study Notes

Classification of Anemia

  • Anemia can be classified based on etiology into three main categories: blood loss, inadequate red blood cell production, and increased red blood cell destruction

Consequences of Anemia

  • The main consequence of anemia is a decrease in oxygen delivery to tissues, leading to tissue hypoxia

Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a condition characterized by severe anemia due to incompatible blood types between the mother and the baby

Megaloblastic Anemia

  • Megaloblastic anemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of abnormally large and immature red blood cells

Acute Blood Loss Anemia

  • The main clinical feature of acute blood loss anemia is hypovolemic shock

Nutritional Deficiency

  • Iron deficiency is the most common form of nutritional deficiency worldwide

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)

  • TTP is a condition that causes abnormal blood clot formation throughout small blood vessels, leading to low platelet levels, potential organ damage, and anemia

Spherocytosis

  • Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetic disorder that results in red cells that are spheroidal, less deformable, and vulnerable to destruction

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a disorder characterized by accelerated destruction of red cells

Chronic Inflammatory Disorders

  • Chronic inflammatory disorders disrupt the normal regulation of iron metabolism and contribute to anemia

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency

  • The primary defect in G6PD deficiency is an impaired ability to generate NADPH, making red cells vulnerable to injury by oxidants

Aplastic Anemia

  • Aplastic anemia is a disorder in which the bone marrow fails to produce enough blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

α-Thalassemia and ß-Thalassemia

  • Thalassemia is a genetic disorder caused by mutations that decrease the rate of synthesis of α- or ß-globin chains

Learn about the definition of anemia, its consequences, clinical features, and classification based on etiology and morphology. Explore the different types of anemia and their characteristics.

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