The Pituitary Gland, Hypothalamus, and Peptide Hormone Synthesis
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The Pituitary Gland, Hypothalamus, and Peptide Hormone Synthesis

A Gonzalez Block 3 Week 4

Created by
@madddog_medschool

Questions and Answers

the anterior pituitary is derived from ___ pouch, which is formed from an invagination of the ____.

Rathke's, pharyngeal epithelium

the posterior pituitary is derived from the ____

diencephalon

The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also called the ____ and the posterior lobe of the pituitary is also called ____.

adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis

anterior pituitary blood supply:

<p>(1) origin = superior hypophyseal artery (2) primary capillary plexus = median eminence (4) secondary capillary plexus = Pars Distalis (3) connection between capillary beds = hypophyseal portal vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following vascular structures with their roles:

<p>Superior pituitary artery = Supplies blood to the anterior pituitary gland Cavernous sinus = Drains venous blood from the pituitary gland Internal carotid artery = Gives rise to the superior pituitary artery Anterior pituitary gland = Receives blood from the superior pituitary artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following staining techniques with their target structures:

<p>Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction = Stains glycoproteins in the cytoplasm of anterior pituitary cells Hematoxylin and eosin staining = Highlights different cell types and structures in the anterior pituitary gland Silver impregnation technique = Stains neurosecretory granules in the anterior pituitary cells Anterior pituitary gland = Can be highlighted using various histological staining techniques</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the cell type with its corresponding hormone secretion:

<p>Somatotrophs = Growth hormone Lactotrophs = Prolactin Thyrotrophs = Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Melanotrophs = Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the function with the hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland:

<p>Stimulates growth, protein synthesis, and metabolism = Growth hormone Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk = Prolactin Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones = Thyroid-stimulating hormone Controls skin pigmentation = Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ cells appear dark pink or purple in the anterior pituitary. The dark color signifies the cytoplasm is full of its hormone

<p>Chromophil</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ cells within the anterior pituitary are pink in color and include ____ and____.

<p>Acidophils, mammotrophs/lactotrophs, somatotrophs</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ within the anterior pituitary are purple in color and include , ____ and.

<p>Basophils, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs, corticotrophs</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the anterior pituitary: acidophils will secrete ____ and ____ basophils will secrete ____, ____, ____, and ____

<p>GH, prolactin LH, FSH, ACTH, TSH</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes acidophils from basophils in the anterior pituitary gland based on their hormone production?

<p>Acidophils produce hormones that regulate growth, while basophils produce hormones involved in stress response.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the factors that contribute to the regulation of hormone synthesis?

<p>The availability of hormone precursors, the activity of chromophils, and feedback mechanisms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of endocrine glands in hormone synthesis?

<p>Maintaining hormonal balance in the body</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is unique about the biosynthesis pathways for different hormones?

<p>They reflect the unique chemical properties of each hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Growth hormone and ____ belong to the same gene family

<p>prolactin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Growth hormone is ____ by elevated BG, obesity, and somatostatin (amongst others)

<p>inhibited</p> Signup and view all the answers

Gigantism is caused by ____ hypersecretion during ____

<p>GH, childhood</p> Signup and view all the answers

Acromegaly is caused by ____ hypersecretion in the ____

<p>GH, adult</p> Signup and view all the answers

Release of prolactin is stimulated by ____ and inhibited by ____

<p>TRH, dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ decreases GnRH, leading to decreased reproductive function and suppressed sexual drive

<p>Prolactin</p> Signup and view all the answers

In individuals with panhypopituitarism, a condition characterized by the underactivity of the entire pituitary gland, which hormone deficiency is most likely to contribute to growth impairment?

<p>Growth hormone (GH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone derived from POMC is involved in the regulation of metabolism?

<p>Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone derived from POMC is linked to inflammation and immune response?

<p>Melanocortin-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of chromophil is used to classify various hormones and peptides in the POMC family?

<p>Pigments that stain purple</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the pituitary gland produces the proteins of the POMC family?

<p>Intermediate lobe</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which family does the Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) family belong to?

<p>Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) superfamily</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which endocrine gland primarily produces the POMC family?

<p>Pituitary gland</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are the hormones and peptides derived from POMC synthesized?

<p>Post-translational processing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What stimulates ACTH synthesis and secretion?

<p>Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where do the enzymatic reactions converting the precursor protein into its active forms occur?

<p>Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone deficiency is most likely to contribute to growth impairment in individuals with panhypopituitarism?

<p>Growth hormone (GH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which term is used to describe the precursor molecules synthesized from DNA that ultimately give rise to biologically active hormones, and specifically, what is the precursor for the hormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)?

<p>Preprohormones; proopiomelanocortin (POMC)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the types of feedback using examples of CRH, ACTH, and cortisol

<p>Long loop feedback = CRH --&gt; ACTH --&gt; cortisol --&gt; cortisol inh CRH Short loop feedback = CRH --&gt; ACTH --&gt; ACTH inh CRH Ultra short feedback = CRH inh further CRH general type of feedback = negative</p> Signup and view all the answers

The posterior pituitary is composed of glial-like cells called____ which do not secrete hormones

<p>pituicytes</p> Signup and view all the answers

The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are produced by ____ and ____ in the hypothalamus

<p>supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

The carrier/binding protein is ____ for oxytocin and ____ for ADH

<p>neurophysin I, neurophysin II</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ are the most common type of pituitary gland tumor

<p>prolactinomas</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ may occur with hyperplasia of the pituitary gland due to compression of the optic chiasm

<p>Loss of peripheral vision</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the pituitary gland tumor with its effects

<p>prolactinoma = Incr milk production (galactorrhea), decr reproductive function Somatotrophic adenoma = Incr bone/soft tissue growth, acromegaly (adults), gigantism (children) Corticotrophic adenoma = Maybe hyperpigmentation, other Cushing’s Disease symptoms Gonadotrophic adenoma = decr reproductive function</p> Signup and view all the answers

The pituitary gland is the “master gland”, measuring ~1 cm in diameter and is located in the ____

<p>sella turcica</p> Signup and view all the answers

the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are connected by the ____.

<p>infundibulum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which arteries supply the posterior pituitary?

<p>Middle hypophyseal and inferior hypophyseal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Growth hormone and prolactin both bind to ____ receptors, triggering the ____ signaling pathway

<p>cytokine, JAK/STAT</p> Signup and view all the answers

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) activate ____

<p>MAP kinase cascade</p> Signup and view all the answers

____ are produced in the liver and also at local site of action such as bones.

<p>Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Somatomedin C (IGF-I) is the most important IGF

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition in the adult leads to decreased secretion of all anterior pituitary hormones?

<p>Panhypopituitarism</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the bone, which of the following stimulates chondrocytes and osteoclasts to increase bone elongation?

<p>IGF</p> Signup and view all the answers

In, vascular smooth muscle, ADH leads to contraction via ____ receptor → IP3, DAG → ↑[Ca2+]i

<p>V2</p> Signup and view all the answers

The carrier/binding protein is ____ for oxytocin and ____ for ADH

<p>neurophysin I, neurophysin II</p> Signup and view all the answers

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