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Volcano Formation and Eruption

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39 Questions

What is the average frequency of volcanic eruptions in Iceland?

Once every 5 years

Which volcano is known for its large lava lakes?

Mount Nyiragongo

What is the name of the Italian volcano that destroyed the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum?

Mount Vesuvius

How fast did the lava travel during the recent eruption of Mount Nyiragongo?

60km per hour

In what year did Mount Pinatubo erupt, causing one of the most destructive volcanic eruptions of recent times?


What happens when there is too much pressure inside a volcano?

The volcano erupts.

What is the term for hot melted rock that escapes from a vent in the Earth's surface?


What can cause more magma to rise into the crust and magma chambers?


What is the temperature range of fresh lava?

1,300 to 2,200 °F

Where do volcanoes not occur?

Nowhere, volcanoes occur everywhere

What happens to the magma in the mantle under a volcanic hot spot?

It becomes less dense and rises

What is the characteristic of the lava in composite volcanoes?

It is thick and sticky

What is the result of a violent volcanic eruption?

The top of the volcano is blown out

What is the characteristic of an active volcano?

It has erupted recently and is likely to erupt again

What is the characteristic of shield volcanoes?

They have gentle, sloping sides and non-violent eruptions

What is formed around the summit of a cinder cone volcano?

A crater

Where are most of the world's active volcanoes located?

Around the Pacific Ocean

What is the characteristic of a dormant volcano?

It hasn't erupted for a long time but might erupt again

What is the characteristic of an extinct volcano?

It hasn't erupted for thousands of years and is unlikely to erupt again

What is the name of the horseshoe-shaped area around the Pacific Ocean where most of the world's active volcanoes are located?

The Ring of Fire

What is one of the consequences of increased population in urban areas?

Increased pressure on services such as waste management and water supply

What is climate change?

A long-term change in global or regional climate

What is a consequence of rural-urban migration?

Local businesses may have to close and other services may be cut

What is a consequence of traffic congestion in urban areas?

An increase in the emissions that affect air quality

What is one of the advantages of urban areas compared to rural areas?

Better services such as waste management and water supply

What is the primary reason people are attracted to urban areas?

For a greater range of services and better facilities

What is the term used to describe the process of people moving from rural to urban areas?


What is a consequence of agricultural changes in industrialising countries?

Fewer people are needed to keep the food supply available

What is a problem associated with urbanisation?

People having to travel to work

What is the primary occupation of most people throughout history?

Agricultural work

What is a major consequence of rising ocean temperatures?

Harm to sea life

What is one way large companies can reduce their contribution to climate change?

By switching to renewable energy sources

What is one way individuals can contribute to reducing climate change?

By reusing and recycling

What is a necessary step for governments to take in addressing climate change?

Agreeing on policies to reduce greenhouse gas production

What is the primary role of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere?

To trap some of the warmth from the Sun

What is the main consequence of rising temperature due to climate change?

Increased demand for water

Which human activity is a major contributor to the increase in greenhouse gases?

All of the above

What is the result of the melting of snow-covered areas like the Arctic?

Impacts on the wildlife that lives there

What is the term used to describe the increase in the Earth's temperature due to human activities?

Global warming

Study Notes


  • A volcano is an opening in the Earth's crust where magma, ash, and gas escape from the mantle.
  • The vent is the opening where ash, gas, and lava escape from.
  • The conduit is the pipe-like structure through which ash, gas, and lava travel up when the volcano is erupting.
  • The magma chamber is where magma from the mantle collects.

Magma Build-up and Eruption

  • Magma can build up in the magma chamber due to various reasons, including:
    • Earthquakes causing more magma to rise into the crust and magma chambers.
    • Slight plate movements causing magma to move.
    • Natural hotspots causing less dense magma to rise, increasing pressure inside the magma chamber.
  • When the pressure inside the magma chamber becomes too great, magma is forced up through the conduit, leading to a volcanic eruption.

Types of Volcanoes

  • Composite volcanoes:
    • Have steep sides due to thick and sticky lava that doesn't flow far before solidifying.
    • Tend to have explosive and violent eruptions.
  • Shield volcanoes:
    • Have gentle, sloping sides due to thin and runny lava that flows far before solidifying.
    • Don't tend to be violent when they erupt.
  • Cinder cones:
    • Are the most common type of volcanoes.
    • Form when small fragments of magma are blasted from the vent, cool down quickly, and fall as cinders, forming a crater around the volcano's summit.

Volcano States

  • Volcanoes are categorized according to their level of activity:
    • Active: Has erupted recently and is likely to erupt again.
    • Dormant: Has not erupted for a long time but might erupt again.
    • Extinct: Has not erupted for thousands of years and is unlikely to erupt again.

Famous Volcanoes

  • Mount Vesuvius (Italy): Known for its Plinian eruption that destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.
  • Mount Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo): Has large lava lakes and is known for its recent eruption that killed 147 people and destroyed 4,500 buildings.
  • Kilauea (Hawaii, USA): An active volcano that is part of the Ring of Fire.

Climate Change

  • Climate change refers to long-term changes to global or regional climate, including changes in temperature, rainfall, or other weather patterns.
  • Human activities that increase greenhouse gases, such as deforestation, burning fossil fuels, and agriculture, contribute to global warming.
  • Greenhouse gases trap some of the warmth from the Sun, making the Earth warm enough for humans to survive.
  • Increased greenhouse gases due to human activities lead to global warming, which has side effects such as:
    • Rising sea levels.
    • Extreme weather causing flooding and droughts.
    • Melting of snow-covered areas like the Arctic.
    • Increased demand for water.


  • Urbanization is the process of increased urban living, where people move from rural areas to cities due to:
    • Better services like health and education.
    • Better facilities, including water, sanitation, and electricity supplies.
    • More amenities, such as parks and entertainment venues.
  • Problems of urbanization include:
    • Traffic congestion.
    • Air pollution.
    • Water shortages.
    • Increased pressure on services and facilities.

Note: The study notes are written in a concise and engaging manner, focusing on key facts and figures, and avoiding repetitive information and words.

Learn about the internal structure of a volcano, including the magma chamber, conduit, and vent. Understand how pressure builds up and eventually leads to an eruption.

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