Vitamins and Coenzymes: Fat-soluble Vitamins

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6 Questions

What is a characteristic of fat-soluble vitamins?

They can be stored in the body, primarily in the liver and fatty tissues

Which of the following vitamins is essential for bone health and calcium absorption?

Vitamin D

What can occur due to inadequate diet, malabsorption, or increased demand?

Vitamin deficiency

What is the role of cofactors in enzymatic reactions?

To enhance enzyme activity

Which of the following vitamins is important for immune function, collagen production, and iron absorption?

Vitamin C

What is an example of a cofactor function in amino acid metabolism?

Tetrahydrofolate (THF)

Study Notes

Vitamins and Coenzymes

Fat-soluble Vitamins

  • Vitamins that can dissolve in fats and oils
  • Can be stored in the body, primarily in the liver and fatty tissues
  • Include:
    1. Vitamin A (retinol)
      • Important for vision, immune function, and skin health
    2. Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
      • Essential for bone health and calcium absorption
    3. Vitamin E (tocopherol)
      • Acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage
    4. Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
      • Necessary for blood clotting and bone health

Water-soluble Vitamins

  • Vitamins that can dissolve in water
  • Cannot be stored in the body, excess amounts are excreted in the urine
  • Include:
    1. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
      • Important for immune function, collagen production, and iron absorption
    2. Vitamin B complex
      • Includes:
        • Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
        • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
        • Niacin (Vitamin B3)
        • Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
        • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
        • Biotin
        • Folate (Vitamin B9)
        • Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
      • Important for energy metabolism, nerve function, and heart health

Vitamin Deficiencies

  • Can occur due to inadequate diet, malabsorption, or increased demand
  • Can lead to various health problems, such as:
    • Fatigue and weakness
    • Impaired immune function
    • Skin problems
    • Poor wound healing
    • Increased risk of chronic diseases

Cofactor Functions

  • Vitamins and coenzymes act as cofactors, enabling enzymes to catalyze chemical reactions
  • Cofactors can:
    • Activate enzymes
    • Stabilize enzymes
    • Facilitate substrate binding
    • Enhance enzyme activity
  • Examples of cofactor functions:
    • Coenzyme A (CoA) in fatty acid metabolism
    • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in energy metabolism
    • Tetrahydrofolate (THF) in amino acid metabolism

Vitamins and Coenzymes

Fat-soluble Vitamins

  • Can dissolve in fats and oils
  • Can be stored in the body, primarily in the liver and fatty tissues
  • Include:
    • Vitamin A (retinol): essential for vision, immune function, and skin health
    • Vitamin D (cholecalciferol): essential for bone health and calcium absorption
    • Vitamin E (tocopherol): acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage
    • Vitamin K (phylloquinone): necessary for blood clotting and bone health

Water-soluble Vitamins

  • Can dissolve in water
  • Cannot be stored in the body, excess amounts are excreted in the urine
  • Include:
    • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): essential for immune function, collagen production, and iron absorption
    • Vitamin B complex:
      • Thiamin (Vitamin B1): important for energy metabolism
      • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2): important for energy metabolism
      • Niacin (Vitamin B3): important for energy metabolism
      • Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5): important for energy metabolism
      • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): important for energy metabolism
      • Biotin: important for energy metabolism
      • Folate (Vitamin B9): important for energy metabolism
      • Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): important for energy metabolism and nerve function

Vitamin Deficiencies

  • Can occur due to inadequate diet, malabsorption, or increased demand
  • Can lead to various health problems, including:
    • Fatigue and weakness
    • Impaired immune function
    • Skin problems
    • Poor wound healing
    • Increased risk of chronic diseases

Cofactor Functions

  • Vitamins and coenzymes act as cofactors, enabling enzymes to catalyze chemical reactions
  • Cofactors can:
    • Activate enzymes
    • Stabilize enzymes
    • Facilitate substrate binding
    • Enhance enzyme activity
  • Examples of cofactor functions:
    • Coenzyme A (CoA) in fatty acid metabolism
    • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in energy metabolism
    • Tetrahydrofolate (THF) in amino acid metabolism

Learn about the characteristics and functions of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K. Understand their importance for human health, including vision, immune function, bone health, and more.

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