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Jackson and Industrial Revolution 2

Test your knowledge on key historical treaties and policies in US history, including the Adam-Onis Treaty, Monroe Doctrine, and Missouri Compromise. Learn about the terms of these agreements and their significance.

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Questions and Answers

Who proposed the Monroe Doctrine?

James Monroe

Which state was admitted as a free state under the Missouri Compromise?

Maine

Who was known for convincing members of the house to vote for John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824?

Henry Clay

Which region approved of the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832?

<p>North</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary concern of Southern states regarding the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832?

<p>Imposition of protective tariffs</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did Andrew Jackson respond to the Nullification Crisis?

<p>By threatening military force and compromise</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was President Jackson's stance on the National Bank?

<p>He thought it infringed on states' rights</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why did President Jackson veto the second Bank's charter extension in 1832?

<p>He thought the Bank threatened states' rights</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the impact of President Jackson moving federal money to 'pet banks'?

<p>Empowered state or local banks</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why was the Indian Removal Act passed?

<p>Due to increased American demand for Indian land</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the ruling in Worcester v. Georgia establish?

<p>States couldn't impose laws on Native American lands</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did President Jackson respond to the ruling in Worcester v. Georgia?

<p>He ignored the court's decision</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterized the Trail of Tears?

<p>A forced relocation of Native American tribes</p> Signup and view all the answers

In what way did the Jackson era expand democracy?

<p><strong>Increased</strong> urban representation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary reason for the South disapproving of the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832?

<p>They feared that the tariffs would harm their agricultural economy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which individual was associated with the 'Tariffs of Abominations'?

<p>John Quincy Adams</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was Andrew Jackson's stance on the American System proposed by Henry Clay?

<p>He vehemently opposed it, viewing it as detrimental to American industry</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why was the election of 1824 nicknamed 'Corrupt Bargain'?

<p>It involved unfair alliances leading to Adams' victory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which statement best describes the Monroe Doctrine?

<p>It opposed European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did South Carolina respond to the imposed protective tariffs on foreign goods?

<p>They declared the tariffs null, leading to a crisis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was President Jackson's stance on the National Bank?

<p>He thought the Bank infringed upon states' rights.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did President Jackson respond to the ruling in Worcester v. Georgia?

<p>He ignored the court's decision.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the significance of the ruling in Gibbons v. Ogden?

<p>It affirmed Congress's supremacy in regulating commerce.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterized the Trail of Tears?

<p>A forced westward movement that resulted in significant loss of life.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the main impact of the Cotton gin on slavery in the South?

<p>It intensified the need for more enslaved labor due to increased cotton profitability.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who were the primary labor force in factories in the mid-1800s?

<p>Working class and immigrant families.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterized the Lowell System during the Industrial Revolution?

<p>Production model involving women working independently from home.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was a key factor contributing to the growth of trade unions?

<p>&quot;Collective bargaining&quot; efforts for better wages and conditions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who were the largest cotton customers during this period?

<p>China and India importing vast quantities of cotton.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who held more power in Southern society - Plantation owners or Yeomen?

<p>Plantation owners, as they controlled most of the wealth and resources.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary purpose of the protective tariff of 1828?

<p>To protect emerging Northern industries</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why did the South disapprove of the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832?

<p>They believed the tariffs would harm their agricultural exports</p> Signup and view all the answers

What led to the Nullification Crisis in the United States?

<p>Southern resistance to protective tariffs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which state famously declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void?

<p>South Carolina</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was Andrew Jackson's response to the Nullification Crisis?

<p>He threatened military force to enforce federal laws</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why was the election of 1824 known as the 'Corrupt Bargain'?

<p>Henry Clay convinced house members to vote for Adams against Jackson</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was President Jackson's view on the National Bank?

<p>He thought it was unconstitutional and trampled on states' rights.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which Supreme Court case established that states did not have the right to impose laws on Native American lands?

<p>Worcester v. Georgia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterized the Trail of Tears?

<p>Westward migration of American Indian tribes from the South and Southwest</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary reason behind passing the Indian Removal Act?

<p>Due to increased American demand for Indian nations' land</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who had the power to regulate commerce among the separate states, according to Chief Justice John Marshall in Gibbons v. Ogden?

<p>Federal government</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the significance of the Lowell System during the Industrial Revolution?

<p>It introduced dormitory living for workers.</p> Signup and view all the answers

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Study Notes

Treaties and Agreements

  • The Adam-Onis Treaty: Spain ceded east Florida to the US and renounced all claims to West Florida
  • The Monroe Doctrine: a US foreign policy opposing European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere
  • The Missouri Compromise:
    • Admitted Missouri as a slave state
    • Admitted Maine as a free state
    • Established 36°30’ as the boundary between slave and free states
  • The American System: a tariff protecting and promoting American industry, proposed by Henry Clay

Tariffs and Nullification

  • The Tariff of 1828: primarily created to protect the rapidly growing industry-based economy of the north
  • The Tariff of 1832: also known as the "Tariffs of Abominations" in the South
  • The Nullification Crisis: a result of southern states' resistance to imposed protective tariffs on foreign goods
  • South Carolina declared the tariffs null
  • Andrew Jackson's response: submitting to Congress a force bill authorizing the use of federal troops in South Carolina if necessary to collect tariff duties

Banking and Politics

  • President Jackson's stance on the National Bank: opposed it, believing it trampled on states' rights
  • The Spoils System: involved political activity by public employees in support of their party, with employees removable if their party lost the election
  • President Jackson put federal money into local or state banks, referred to as "pet banks"

Indian Removal and the Supreme Court

  • The Indian Removal Act: passed to force American Indians further West
  • The Worcester v. Georgia case:
    • Ruling: states did not have the right to impose their laws on Native American lands
    • President Jackson's response: ignored the court's decision
  • The Trail of Tears: the forced westward migration of American Indian tribes from the South and Southwest to Indian territory in what is now Oklahoma

Economic and Social Changes

  • The Industrial Revolution: a process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one of machine production
  • Effects of the Industrial Revolution:
    • Increased production and efficiency
  • The Lowell System: a labor and production model adopted during the Industrial Revolution for producing textiles
  • Textile production before the factory: under the Putting-Out System
  • Power source for textile mills: water or steam-powered
  • The Gibbons v. Ogden case:
    • Ruling: Congress has the power to "regulate commerce" and federal law takes precedence over state laws
    • Significance: forbade states from enacting legislation that would interfere with Congress's right to regulate commerce among the separate states

Urbanization and Labor

  • Urbanization: the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities
  • Labor force in factories in the mid-1800s: working class and immigrant families
  • Main forms of transportation in the North: waterways and a growing network of railroads
  • Trade unions: organizations of workers maintaining and improving conditions of their employment through collective bargaining
  • The Cotton Gin: increased demand for both land and enslaved labor in the South

Southern Society

  • Plantation owner: a wealthy individual who owned a large agricultural estate, known as a plantation
  • Yeoman: an independent farmer or planter
  • Power dynamics: plantation owners held most of the power in southern society
  • Nat Turner: a prominent figure in the slave rebellion

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