Three Major Types of Rocks Quiz

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What is the main difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks?

Intrusive rocks have large, visible crystal formations, while extrusive rocks have invisible crystal structures

What are some common uses of granite, an intrusive igneous rock?

Making kitchen counters and floor tiles

What process leads to the formation of sedimentary rocks?

Lithification of sediments

Which type of rock is limestone, and how is it formed?

Clastic sedimentary rock, formed from the lithification of calcium-rich organic matter

How are clastic sedimentary rocks like sandstone formed?

Through the lithification of silt particles from weathered rock

What type of rock is marble?

Metamorphic

Under what conditions is contact metamorphism typically formed?

High heat and low pressure

What distinguishes foliated metamorphic rocks from unfoliated ones?

Presence of parallel bands of minerals

Which type of metamorphism occurs along fault lines where continental plates rub against each other?

Dynamic metamorphism

What is the characteristic type of metamorphism at convergent tectonic margins?

Regional metamorphism

What are igneous rocks defined as?

Rocks that form from the cooling and solidification of molten rock

What is the difference between magma and lava?

Magma is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface, while lava is on the Earth's surface

How do sedimentary rocks differ from igneous rocks?

Sedimentary rocks are formed from the cooling and solidification of molten rock, while igneous rocks are formed through weathering, deposition, and lithification of sediments

What is the process that leads to the formation of metamorphic rocks?

Alteration of existing rock through heat, pressure, or chemical processes

How do magma and lava contribute to the formation of igneous rocks?

Magma cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface to form igneous rocks, while lava cools and solidifies on the Earth's surface to form igneous rocks

Study Notes

Igneous Rocks

  • Intrusive igneous rocks form below the Earth's surface, whereas extrusive igneous rocks form above the Earth's surface.
  • Granite is an example of an intrusive igneous rock, commonly used in construction, countertops, and monuments.

Sedimentary Rocks

  • Sedimentary rocks are formed through the process of lithification, where sediments are compressed and cemented together.
  • Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock formed from the accumulation of calcium carbonate from fossilized marine life.
  • Clastic sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone, are formed from the cementation of clastic sediments like sand, silt, and clay.

Metamorphic Rocks

  • Marble is a type of metamorphic rock formed from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone.
  • Contact metamorphism typically occurs when magma intrudes into surrounding rocks, causing changes in temperature and pressure.
  • Foliated metamorphic rocks, such as slate and gneiss, exhibit layered or banded structures, distinguishing them from unfoliated metamorphic rocks like marble.
  • Dynamic metamorphism occurs along fault lines where continental plates rub against each other, resulting in intense pressure and heat.
  • Regional metamorphism is characteristic of convergent tectonic margins, where two plates collide, causing intense heat and pressure.

Rock Formation Processes

  • Igneous rocks are defined as rocks formed from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
  • Magma is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface, while lava is molten rock that has erupted onto the Earth's surface.
  • Sedimentary rocks differ from igneous rocks in that they are formed from the accumulation and compression of sediments, rather than from the cooling of magma.
  • Metamorphic rocks are formed through the process of metamorphism, where existing rocks are transformed by heat, pressure, and chemical reactions.

Test your knowledge about the three major types of rocks: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks. Learn about the processes that lead to their formation and how they differ from each other.

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