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# Thermodynamics: Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity

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@SensationalConnemara2025

### What happens to the availability of useful energy in a system when it becomes more disordered?

More useful energy becomes available to do work.

### What is the direction of a reaction when ΔG is negative?

The reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction.

### What is the primary difference between Gibbs free energy and enthalpy?

Gibbs free energy is the amount of 'free' or 'available' energy a system possesses to do work, whereas enthalpy is the total energy of a system.

### What is the condition for a reaction to be at equilibrium?

<p>ΔG is zero.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the preferred condition for spontaneous reactions in terms of ΔH and ΔS?

<p>A negative ΔH and a positive ΔS.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the sign of ΔG° relate to the spontaneity of a reaction?

<p>A negative ΔG° indicates a spontaneous reaction, while a positive ΔG° indicates a non-spontaneous reaction.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the role of entropy in determining the spontaneity of a reaction?

<p>Entropy (ΔS) helps to determine the spontaneity of a reaction by indicating the change in disorder or randomness of the system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the relationship between ΔG and Keqm?

<p>ΔG = -RTlnK</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the Gibbs equation relate to the equilibrium constant (Keq)?

<p>ΔG° = -RTln(Keq), where R is the gas constant and T is the temperature in Kelvin.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does a Keqm value greater than 1 indicate?

<p>Products are favoured.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the significance of the Kelvin temperature (T) in the Gibbs equation?

<p>The Kelvin temperature (T) is used to scale the entropy term (ΔS) in the Gibbs equation, allowing for the calculation of ΔG° at a specific temperature.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Using the given data, is the reaction H2O(l) → H2O(g) spontaneous at room temperature?

<p>No, the reaction is not spontaneous at room temperature, as ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS° = -286 kJ/mol - (298 K)(0.070 J/K·mol) = 34 kJ/mol, which is positive.</p> Signup and view all the answers

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