Theories of Intelligence: Psychometric, Systems & Biologically Based Theories

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What is the main focus of psychometric theories of intelligence?

Measuring and quantifying intelligence through standardized tests

Which theory proposes that there are multiple forms of intelligence such as linguistic, logical-mathematical, and musical intelligence?

Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

According to systems theories of intelligence, what do they attempt to characterize?

The system of structures and mechanisms of mind that comprise intelligence

Which theory is a synthesis of earlier psychometric theories of intelligence?

CHC theory

What is the primary focus of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?

Exploring multiple forms of intelligence

In the context of intelligence theories, what is the central idea behind psychometric theories?

Intelligence being a general ability that can be measured by analyzing performance on tasks

Which theory proposes that intelligence has three aspects: analytical, creative, and practical?

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

What is the most widely accepted theory that suggests three strata of intelligence, including general ability and fluid and crystallized ability?

CHC Theory

According to Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, what type of intelligence involves an individual's understanding of themselves?

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Which theory defines intelligence as 'mental activity directed toward selection, and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one's life'?

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

Which theory argues that intelligence is not a single ability but encompasses multiple intelligences such as linguistic and musical intelligence?

Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

'g-f' and 'g-c' are associated with which stratum in the CHC theory of intelligence?

Stratum II

Study Notes

Theories of Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence

The field of psychology has long been fascinated by the concept of intelligence, and over the years, various theories have emerged to explain what intelligence is and how it can be measured. In this article, we will explore some of the most prominent theories of intelligence, including psychometric theories, systems theories, and biologically based theories.

Psychometric Theories

Psychometric theories of intelligence are based on the idea that intelligence can be measured and quantified through psychometric tests, such as intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. These theories propose that intelligence is a general ability that can be measured by analyzing an individual's performance on a standardized set of tasks. The most widely accepted psychometric theory is the CHC theory, which is a synthesis of earlier psychometric theories of intelligence.

Systems Theories

Systems theories of intelligence attempt to characterize the system of structures and mechanisms of mind that comprise intelligence. Two notable systems theories are Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence. Gardner's theory posits that there are multiple forms of intelligence, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence. Sternberg's triarchic theory, on the other hand, integrates components that were lacking in Gardner's theory and proposes that intelligence has three aspects: analytical, creative, and practical.

Biologically Based Theories

Biologically based theories of intelligence aim to account for intelligence in terms of brain-based mechanisms. Different biological accounts are given their own section, immediately following this one.

CHC Theory

The CHC theory, or Cattell, Horn, Carroll theory, is a widely accepted theory that suggests there are three strata of intelligence that are hierarchically related to each other. Stratum I includes narrow abilities, Stratum II, broad abilities, and Stratum III, general ability. The most important abilities for the purposes of this article are general ability (Stratum III), also referred to as g, and fluid and crystallized ability (Stratum II), also referred to as g-f and g-c. General ability is an overarching ability that is theorized to be relevant to, and involved in, a very wide variety of cognitive tasks. It has been found to be correlated with performance on a very wide range of cognitive functions and life outcomes, such as income, job performance, and even health.

Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Gardner has argued that intelligence is not a single ability but rather multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences include linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence. Gardner's theory is based on a variety of sources of evidence, including neuropsychological and psychometric evidence.

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward selection, and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one's life". His triarchic theory of intelligence is based on the definition of intelligence as the ability to achieve success based on your personal standards and consists of three aspects: analytical, creative, and practical intelligence.

Key Takeaways

In summary, theories of intelligence range from having one general intelligence (g) to certain primary mental abilities and multiple intelligences. The most widely accepted theory is the CHC theory, which is a synthesis of earlier psychometric theories of intelligence. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence are examples of systems theories of intelligence, while biologically based theories attempt to account for intelligence in terms of brain-based mechanisms.

Explore the prominent theories of intelligence in psychology, including psychometric theories (e.g. CHC theory), systems theories (e.g. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, Sternberg's triarchic theory), and biologically based theories. Understand how intelligence is conceptualized, measured, and explained through various theoretical frameworks.

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