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The Coming of the Mashiach in Jewish Prophecies

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Doniel Karp
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What did the Jewish prophets foretell about the coming of a Mashiach?

The Jewish prophets foretold that the Mashiach would be a great Jewish leader who would bring about world peace, and that he would be a descendant of King David. They also stated that God would establish a permanent Beit Hamikdash and the Jewish nation would live securely in the Land of Israel.

Why was the hope that God would send the Mashiach incredibly strong under Roman rule?

The hope that God would send the Mashiach was incredibly strong under Roman rule because the Romans stopped Jews from practicing their religion and made life difficult for them.

How did the response to those who claimed to be the Mashiach differ from the response to John the Baptist?

While a number of Jewish men arose and claimed to be the Mashiach, mostly they had very few followers. However, the response to John the Baptist was different, as he would later become known as the precursor to the Mashiach, Jesus.

How did Jesus' teachings differ from the focus of other Jewish teachers of the time?

Jesus' teachings focused more on the ethical aspects of Judaism, placing more importance on how we treat one another, rather than the specific commandments performed for God. This differed from the focus of other Jewish teachers of the time.

Despite his different teachings, how did Jesus view his role in relation to Judaism?

Even though Jesus might have disagreed with other teachers of the time about the correct understanding of a law, he was not starting a separate religion from Judaism, but rather was part of similar groups at the time.

What was the common method of execution used by the Romans against Jesus?

Crucifixion

Who was the new leader that the small group of Jesus' followers found about 30 years after his death?

Paul (originally Shaul) of Tarsus

What was the key difference between the practices and customs of Christianity and Judaism that Paul's rejection of the Torah allowed?

Paul allowed non-Jewish people to join Christianity without having to first convert to Judaism.

What was the significance of the Roman emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity and his declaration of it as the religion of the Roman Empire?

It pushed Christianity to become the largest religion in the world.

What is the meaning of the term 'Christ' and how is it related to the term 'Messiah'?

The Greek-derived 'Christ' is the same word as the Hebrew 'Messiah' and it means 'Anointed One'. Jesus' followers referred to him as the Messiah.

How did the Four Gospels and Paul's letters become part of the New Testament?

Paul's letters about the life of Jesus were later gathered together and became part of the New Testament, along with the Four Gospels - Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

Study Notes

The Concept of Mashiach

  • The Jewish prophets foretold the coming of a Mashiach, a great Jewish leader who would bring about world peace.
  • The Mashiach would be a descendant of King David.
  • G-d would establish a permanent Beit Hamikdash and the Jewish nation would live securely in the Land of Israel.

The Hope for Mashiach Under Roman Rule

  • The hope for Mashiach was strong under Roman rule, as the Romans stopped Jews from practicing their religion and made life difficult for them.
  • Several Jewish men claimed to be the Mashiach, but most had few followers.

John the Baptist and Jesus

  • John the Baptist was born over 2000 years ago and was a charismatic leader.
  • Jesus' teachings focused on the ethical aspects of Judaism, emphasizing how we treat one another over specific commandments for God.
  • Jesus did not intend to start a separate religion from Judaism.

The Rise of Jesus and His Followers

  • Jesus gained many followers seeking hope in a time of great difficulty.
  • His followers considered him to be the Mashiach.
  • The Romans had Jesus crucified to prevent an uprising against their rule.

The Significance of the Term "Christ"

  • "Christ" is not Jesus' surname, but rather the Greek-derived term for "Anointed One" or "Messiah".
  • Jesus' followers referred to him as the Messiah.

The Spread of Christianity

  • About 30 years after Jesus' death, Paul (originally Shaul) of Tarsus became a leader of Jesus' followers.
  • Paul was originally from Southern Turkey, but had come to Jerusalem to study Torah.
  • He opposed Jesus' followers at first, but later became a key figure and supporter.
  • Paul travelled the Roman Empire, teaching people about Christian ideas and the teachings of Jesus.
  • He wrote letters about Christianity, which were later gathered together and became part of the New Testament.

The New Testament and the Christian Bible

  • The New Testament consists of the Four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and Paul's letters.
  • The New Testament, together with the Old Testament (Tenach), forms the Christian Bible.

The Parting of the Ways

  • At one point, you couldn't be a Christian unless you were first a Jew.

  • Over time, Christianity and Judaism separated into different religions.

  • The two important processes for the division were:

    The Philosophy, Activities, and Doctrines of Paul

    • Paul's rejection of the Torah allowed later Christian leaders to develop practices and customs different from Jewish ones.
    • Paul allowed non-Jewish people to join Christianity without having to first convert to Judaism.

    The Conversion of Constantine

    • The Roman emperor, Constantine, converted to Christianity and declared Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire.
    • This pushed Christianity to become the largest religion in the world.

Explore the predictions of the Jewish prophets regarding the coming of the Mashiach, a great leader who would bring world peace. Learn about the expectations that the Mashiach would be a descendant of King David and would establish a permanent Beit Hamikdash. Delve into the significance of this prophecy under Roman rule.

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