The Acropolis of Athens: Classical Period

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When was the Propylaea built?

437 to 432 BCE

What is the meaning of the word 'Acropolis'?

High city

When was the Temple of Athena-Nike built?

Between 427 to 424 BCE

What were the financial constraints that delayed the completion of the Propylaea?

Financial constraints due to the Peloponnesian wars

What does the name 'Erechtheion' refer to?

The mythical Greek king Erechtheus

Who was the designer of the Erechtheion?

Mnesicles

Who was the sculptor of the 12-meter-high statue of Athena in the Parthenon?

Phidias

Which event led to the damage of the entire Parthenon structure?

A bomb landing on the Parthenon during the siege of Athens in 1687

What material was used for the construction of the Parthenon?

Marble from a quarry in Pentelikon or Penteli

Who is credited as the supervisor of the construction of the Parthenon?

Phidias

What is the significance of the south porch of the Erechtheion?

It is adorned with caryatid maidens

What was the Erechtheion divided into?

Two sections dedicated to different gods

What type of columns were used in the Parthenon?

Ionic columns outside and Doric columns inside

What was the function of Temple of Athena-Nike?

To worship for new victories in war against Sparta

Who designed the Theater of Epidaurus?

Polykleitos the Younger

Study Notes

Acropolis and Its Structures

  • The word 'Acropolis' means "high city" in Greek, referring to the citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athens.

Propylaea

  • The Propylaea was built, but its completion was delayed due to financial constraints.
  • The exact date of its construction is not specified.

Temple of Athena-Nike

  • The Temple of Athena-Nike was built, but the exact date is not specified.
  • Its function was to serve as a temple, likely dedicated to the goddess Athena.

Erechtheion

  • The name 'Erechtheion' refers to the mythological king Erechtheus, who was worshipped in ancient Athens.
  • The Erechtheion was designed by the architect Mnesikles.
  • The significance of the south porch of the Erechtheion lies in its featuring six majestic Ionic columns, known as the Caryatids, which are sculpted female figures serving as column supports.
  • The Erechtheion was divided into two main parts: the north wing, dedicated to the worship of Athena, and the south wing, dedicated to the worship of Poseidon.

Parthenon

  • The Parthenon was constructed using Pentelic marble and limestone.
  • The type of columns used in the Parthenon were Doric columns.
  • The Parthenon housed a massive 12-meter-high statue of Athena, sculpted by Phidias.
  • The supervisor of the Parthenon's construction was Pericles, an Athenian statesman.
  • The entire Parthenon structure was damaged in an event, likely a fire, in 1687.

Other Structures

  • The Theater of Epidaurus was designed by Polykleitos the Younger.

Explore the architectural and historical significance of the Acropolis of Athens during the Classical Period. Learn about the damages caused by the Persians, the reconstruction efforts led by Pericles, and the design of the Propylaea.

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