Symptoms of Newborn Jaundice

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12 Questions

What is the recommended frequency for taking vital signs of an infant undergoing treatment?

At least every 4 hours

Which of the following is a risk factor that can increase neonatal hypoglycemia?

Congenital heart disease

What is the defined blood glucose level for hypoglycemia in term neonates between 24 and 48 hours of life?

< 45 mg/dL

What is one of the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia in newborns as mentioned in the text?

Tachycardia

Which treatment option is typically recommended for hypoglycemic newborns?

IV dextrose

What action should be taken if hypoglycemia persists despite feeding in newborns?

Notify the primary health care provider

What is the first sign of jaundice in newborns?

Yellowing of skin and eyes

Which of the following is a sign of Bilirubin Encephalopathy?

Rigid extension of all limbs

What does exchange transfusion help to prevent in newborns?

Brain damage like Kernicterus

At what total serum bilirubin level is phototherapy generally scheduled for term newborns?

10 to 12 mg/dL

What can a Coombs test be done for in newborns with jaundice?

Check for increased red blood cell breakdown

What does normal Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB) level range up to in newborns and children aged 15 days to 17 years?

< 15.0 mg/dL

Study Notes

Phototherapy Treatment for Newborns

  • The infant must be unclothed during treatment to ensure effective phototherapy.
  • Maintaining normal body temperature is crucial during treatment.
  • Vital signs should be taken at least every 4 hours.
  • An opaque mask is necessary to shield the newborn's eyes.
  • A small folded diaper covers the testes to prevent damage.
  • A cap may be used to prevent heat loss from the head during treatment.

Monitoring Bilirubin Levels

  • Bilirubin levels should be checked at least daily.
  • Serum bilirubin levels usually fall 1 to 3mg/per dl after 8 to 12 hours of treatment.

Parent-Infant Interaction

  • The phototherapy unit is turned off, and the eye shields are removed during parenteral visiting and feeding.

Care and Management

  • Providing proper care and maintaining fluid level and hygiene of the newborn is essential.
  • Proper feeding and medication administration are critical.
  • Maintaining aseptic technique is necessary to prevent infection.
  • Providing psychological support to parents and explaining follow-up care is vital.

Hypoglycemia in Newborns

  • Hypoglycemia is defined as blood glucose < 45 mg/dL (< 2.5 mmol/L) in term neonates and < 30 mg/dL (< 1.7 mmol/L) in preterm neonates.
  • Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include irritability, lethargy, seizures, apnea, grunting, and tachycardia.
  • Risk factors for hypoglycemia include intra-uterine growth retardation, prematurity, hyperinsulinemia, prolonged fasting, endocrine abnormalities, and congenital heart disease.
  • Treatment for hypoglycemia involves enteral feeding or IV dextrose.

Nursing Care for Hypoglycemic Newborns

  • Identifying high-risk newborns and monitoring for signs of hypoglycemia is crucial.
  • Blood glucose levels should be checked within the first few hours after birth and every 4 hours thereafter.
  • Preventing hypoglycemia in newborns at risk involves initiating early feedings with breast milk or formula.

Newborn Jaundice

  • The first sign of jaundice is yellowing of the baby's skin and eyes.
  • Symptoms of jaundice include lethargy, poor feeding, fever, and bilirubin encephalopathy.
  • Bilirubin encephalopathy can cause irreversible brain damage, leading to severe hyperextension, fever, irritability, and seizures.

Exchange Transfusion

  • Exchange transfusion helps to remove sensitized RBCs, decrease serum bilirubin levels, correct anemia, and prevent cardiac failure.

Diagnosing Newborn Jaundice

  • A distinct yellow coloration is a sign of jaundice.
  • Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB) levels are used to diagnose jaundice.
  • A complete blood count (CBC), blood type, and Rh incompatibility are necessary for diagnosis.
  • Coombs test may be done to check for increased red blood cell breakdown.

Learn about the common symptoms of newborn jaundice, including yellowing of the skin and eyes, lethargy, poor feeding, and in some cases, fever. Explore the signs of Bilirubin Encephalopathy, a condition where unconjugated bilirubin reaches toxic levels and causes severe brain damage in newborns.

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