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# Gas laws : MCQ 3

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@PrudentRainforest

### What is the relationship between pressure and volume according to Boyle's Law?

• Exponentially proportional
• Inversely proportional (correct)
• Directly proportional
• Logarithmically proportional
• ### What is the unit of temperature that must be used in the combined gas law?

• Rankine
• Kelvin (correct)
• Fahrenheit
• Celsius
• ### What is the significance of the number 22.4 in Avogadro's Law?

• It is the volume of a mole in liters (correct)
• It is the number of molecules in a mole
• It is the temperature at which the law is applicable
• It is the ratio of molecules to volume
• ### What is the main difference between Charles' Law and Gay-Lussac's Law?

<p>Charles' Law deals with individual gases, while Gay-Lussac's Law deals with reacting gases</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main idea behind Avogadro's Law?

<p>Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of the combined gas law?

<p>To relate pressure, temperature, and volume</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the significance of the ratio of volumes in Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes?

<p>It is a simple whole number ratio</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the relationship between the volume of a gas and its temperature according to Charles' Law?

<p>The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main difference between the particles in a solid and a liquid?

<p>The particles in a solid have a fixed shape and volume, whereas in a liquid they can slide over one another.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the particles in a liquid when it is heated to its boiling point?

<p>The particles break completely free from one another.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the unit of measurement for temperature in the gas laws?

<p>Kelvin</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p)?

<p>22.4 L</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What did Boyle's Law state about the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas?

<p>When pressure is increased, the volume of the gas decreases.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the process of diffusion demonstrated by the experiment with HCl, NH₃, and cotton wool?

<p>Diffusion in both gases and liquids.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the condition for standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p)?

<p>Standard temperature = 273K, Standard pressure = 101,325 Pa</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### States of Matter

• There are three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases.
• Solids have a fixed shape and volume due to tightly packed particles that vibrate when heated.
• When heated to the melting point, particles break free, resulting in an increase in volume as the solid becomes a liquid.
• Liquids have a fixed volume at a given temperature, and particles are close together but can slide over each other.
• At boiling point, particles break completely free, resulting in a large increase in volume.
• Gases have no fixed shape or volume, and particles move randomly in all directions.

### Diffusion

• Diffusion is the spontaneous spreading out of a substance due to the natural movement of its particles.
• Diffusion occurs in gases and liquids.
• Examples of diffusion include:
• HCl and NH₃ diffusing to form Ammonium chloride.
• Potassium permanganate crystals in water.

### Gas Laws

• The gas laws explain the change in volume of a gas when different pressures and temperatures are exerted on the gas.
• Temperature is measured in Kelvin (K), with 0°C equal to 273K.
• Pressure is measured in Pascals (Pa).
• Volume is measured in cm³.
• Standard Temperature and Pressure (s.t.p) conditions are:
• Standard temperature: 273K
• Standard pressure: 101,325 Pa
• Molar volume at s.t.p: 1 mole = 22.4L = 22,400cm³

### Boyle's Law

• Boyle's Law states that, at constant temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of any gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas.
• When pressure is increased, the volume of the gas decreases.
• Volume is inversely proportional to pressure: 1/Pressure

### Charles' Law

• Charles' Law states that, at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of any gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
• When temperature is increased, the volume of the gas increases proportionally.

### Combined Gas Law

• The combined gas law is a combination of Boyle's Law and Charles' Law.
• The law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure and directly proportional to the temperature.
• Example: finding the volume of a gas at s.t.p.

### Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes

• Gay-Lussac's Law states that the volumes of gases reacting and the volume of the gaseous products are in simple whole number ratios to each other.
• Example: the reaction of hydrogen and chlorine to form hydrogen chloride.

• Avogadro's Law states that equal volumes of gases, under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules.
• 22.4L = 1 mole = 6 × 10²³ molecules at s.t.p.
• Avogadro's Law can be used to write chemical equations, such as the reaction of hydrogen and chlorine to form hydrogen chloride.

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## Description

Learn about the three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases, and their properties, including particle arrangement and behavior during heating and cooling.

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