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Autonomics

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Questions and Answers

Which system is responsible for conscious control over movement, respiration, and posture?

Somatic nervous system

What type of control does the somatic nervous system exert over the body?

Conscious control

Which function is NOT controlled by the somatic nervous system?

Digestion

Which branch of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for the 'fight or flight' response?

<p>Sympathetic nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which branch of the autonomic nervous system is primarily responsible for conserving and restoring energy in the body?

<p>Parasympathetic nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

One day, while hiking, you spot a cougar down the trail. It turns its head and once it spots you, it begins to run towards you. What is most likely going on in your body?

<p>Bronchial dilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Somehow, you manage to escape from the cougar. You sit down by a tree to relax. What is most likely going on in your body?

<p>Wetting yourself</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of neuron is responsible for wiring the somatic nervous system?

<p>Myelinated neuron</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is released onto skeletal muscle by the neurons of the somatic nervous system?

<p>Glutamate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which nervous system is associated with a short, myelinated neuron that synapses at the ganglion and then has a long postganglionic unmyelinated neuron?

<p>Sympathetic Nervous System</p> Signup and view all the answers

Based off the previous question, which neurotransmitter(s) does the short and long neuron secrete (in the order that the signal is sent)?

<p>ACH, NE</p> Signup and view all the answers

A short myelinated neuron synapses at the Adrenal medulla. Which nervous system is this associated with?

<p>Sympathetic Nervous System</p> Signup and view all the answers

Based off the previous question, which neurotransmitter(s) does the short neuron and adrenal medulla secrete (in the order that the signal is sent)?

<p>ACH, NE</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which nervous system has a long myelinated neuron that innervates a ganglia followed by a short non-myelinated neuron?

<p>Parasympathetic Nervous System</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is NOT released by the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Alpha, beta, and dopamine are all receptor subtypes of which nervous system?

<p>SNS</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is NOT a sympathetic neurotransmitter?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is true about adrenergic agonists?

<p>They activate adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a characteristic of adrenergic receptors?

<p>Activation leads to decreased digestive activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following best describes sympathomimetics?

<p>Medications that increase the response and promote nerve impulse transmission in the sympathetic system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of sympatholytics?

<p>To inhibit the response and block nerve impulse transmission in the sympathetic system</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following best describes the function of adrenergic receptor alpha 1?

<p>Innervating smooth muscle causing constriction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary effect of activation of adrenergic receptor alpha 2?

<p>Decrease in blood pressure by inhibiting sympathetic outflow</p> Signup and view all the answers

From which amino acid residue are the catecholamines NE, EPI, and DA synthesized?

<p>Tyrosine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitters are released into the synapse dependent upon the release of calcium?

<p>NE, EPI, and DA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of NE, EPI, and DA?

<p>COMT and MAO</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which adrenergic receptor subtype is responsible for causing smooth muscle relaxation in the lungs?

<p>Adrenergic receptor beta 2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary effect of adrenergic receptor beta 1 activation?

<p>Increased heart rate, contractility, and conduction</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is peripherally administered dopamine ineffective in treating patients with Parkinson's disease?

<p>It cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the precursor levodopa used instead of dopamine for treating Parkinson's?

<p>Levodopa can penetrate the blood-brain barrier</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is carbidopa used in the management of Parkinson's Disease?

<p>To inhibit the unwanted side effects of levodopa on organs located outside of the central nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the parasympathetic nervous system, what are the primary receptor types for ACH?

<p>Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is primarily responsible for mediating the 'rest and digest' response in the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of nerve fibers are primarily associated with the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Cholinergic</p> Signup and view all the answers

ACH is broken down by which enzyme?

<p>acetylcholinesterase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the cholinergic receptors?

<p>Nicotinic and Muscarinic</p> Signup and view all the answers

M2 receptors are found in the heart.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

M3 receptors are found in smooth muscle.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

M1, M4, and M5 are found in the central nervous system.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of darifenacin?

<p>Treating symptoms of an overactive bladder</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does darifenacin work in the body?

<p>By relaxing the muscles of the bladder (antimuscarinics)</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many knees do elephants have?

<p>2</p> Signup and view all the answers

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Study Notes

Adrenergic Receptors

  • Adrenergic receptors are a sub-group of G-protein coupled receptors

Adrenergic Agonists

  • Adrenergic agonists are substances that stimulate adrenergic receptors

Adrenergic Antagonists

  • Adrenergic antagonists are substances that block the action of adrenergic receptors

Indications for Adrenergic Antagonists

  • The indications for adrenergic antagonists include (list not provided)

Please note that the original text seems to be repeated multiple times, and there is no clear or new information provided. The above summary is based on the limited information available.

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