L1
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L1

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@GainfulPorcupine

Questions and Answers

What is the Nino 3.4 index and what does it measure?

The Nino 3.4 index is a measure of sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific region, specifically the Nino 3.4 region. It measures small anomalies in sea surface temperature that can have a significant impact on climate patterns around the world.

What is the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and how is it standardized?

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is a measure of the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. It is standardized using a formula that is similar to the z-score formula.

What is the autumn predictability barrier?

The autumn predictability barrier refers to the breakdown and re-emergence of climate patterns during autumn. It is a phenomenon observed in which climate patterns tend to show a lot of grey in the columns during the autumn season.

What are the impacts of sea surface temperature anomalies on various systems?

<p>Anomaly impacts reading of city terms, anomaly impacts agricultural production systems, anomaly impacts health systems.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Walker Circulation and how is it related to the Nino 3.4 region?

<p>Walker Circulation is a whole system that explains the link between what's happening in the atmosphere and what's happening in the Pacific Ocean. The Nino 3.4 region is a crucial part of the Walker Circulation.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) calculated and what are its phases?

<p>The SOI is calculated monthly by measuring the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin and standardizing it using the Z score formula. The SOI has five phases: rising, falling, negative, positive, and near zero.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the four climate prediction indices discussed in the lecture?

<p>Nino 3.4 ONI, Southern Oscillation Index, Warm Water Volume Index, Multivariate ENSO Index</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Nino 3.4 index measure?

<p>Sea surface temperatures and calculates anomalies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does a positive Southern Oscillation Index indicate?

<p>Stronger Easterlies, which can impact rainfall patterns</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Warm Water Volume Index measure?

<p>The volume of warm water above the 20-degree isotherm in the Pacific Ocean</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does a positive value of the Multivariate ENSO Index indicate?

<p>El Niño-like conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Walker Circulation?

<p>The atmospheric circulation pattern that accompanies the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Warm Water Volume Index (WWV) and how is it used in climate prediction?

<p>The WWV measures the volume of warm water above the 20-degree isotherm in the Pacific Ocean. Anomalies in the WWV are used to determine if the warm water volume is above or below average for a particular month. It can help with climate prediction post-autumn.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) and what information does it combine?

<p>The MEI combines information about sea level pressures, surface winds, sea surface temperatures, surface air temperature, and cloudiness data.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Explain the relationship between the Walker Circulation and the Pacific Ocean during La Niña and El Niño events.

<p>During a La Niña event, the easterly winds become stronger, changing the sea level height and the thermocline, which affects the WWV. The formation of clouds and rainfall in the Pacific Ocean during a La Niña event causes dry conditions in Australia. The reverse is true for an El Niño event.</p> Signup and view all the answers

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