DR 1 - Skull and Cranial Cavity

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34 Questions

Which structure is at risk of damage in a fracture of the sphenoid bone?

Pituitary gland

What fluid is likely to leak into the nasal cavity in a cranial base injury?

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Which surgical approach is commonly used for cranial base injuries and pathologies?

Endoscopic / minimally invasive surgery

Which case presented is an example of an extradural hematoma?

Case 1

Through what systems could the metastatic cancer in Case 3 have spread?

Lymph and blood

In which part of the skull is the metastasis located in Case 3?

Parietal bone

Which of the following is NOT one of the layers of the scalp?

Muscle

How many bones are there in the neurocranium?

8

Which part of the skull houses the upper parts of the digestive and respiratory tracts?

Viscerocranium

How many cranial foramina are there in the skull?

22

Which arteries form the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)?

Anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery

What are the signs and symptoms of a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?

Face drooping, loss of control in arms, slurred speech, importance of time for treatment

Which veins drain blood from the brain into the dural venous sinuses?

Cerebral veins

What is the result of a sudden occlusion in one of the main arteries of the brain?

Cerebral infarction

Which layer of the scalp, in addition to the skin, needs to be sutured to ensure proper wound closure?

Aponeurotic layer

Through what structures can an infection in the scalp pass to reach the cranial cavity?

Blood vessels

Which structures pass through the cranial foramina?

Nerves

What is the function of the base of the skull?

Protection of the brain

What are the layers of the scalp?

Epidermis, subcutaneous tissue, and pericranium

Which bones make up the skull?

Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital bones

What is the blood supply to the brain?

Carotid arteries

What does surgical excision, radio/chemotherapy refer to?

Approaches to treating brain tumors

Which bones make up the viscerocranium?

Two nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, two lacrimal bones, vomer, mandible

Which part of the skull accommodates the large and rapidly growing brain at birth?

Calvarium

At what age do fontanelles, also known as 'soft spots', typically close?

End of the first year

What bones contribute substantially to the shape of the face by being carried downwards and forwards with the enlargement of the sinuses?

Maxillae

What is the angle between the ramus and body of the mandible in adults?

Right angle

What are the extra bones that can be created in the skull in-between sutures called?

Wormian bones

The impact at the pterion probably caused a rupture of the blood vessel at that point. However a fracture near to the region where the artery (from Question 1) enters the skull is also possible. Which foramen does the artery use to access the cranial cavity?

foramen spinosum

The foramen spinosum sits within which bone?

sphenoid bone

Peaches is a 20-day-old female born via a vaginal delivery at term. She has no previous medical history. Her mother has brought her to the Emergency Department as she is refusing the bottle and is not very responsive. You examine Peaches and notice a soft spot just superior and posterior to her ear. What is this structure called?

mastoid fontanelle

After a thorough examination you suspect that Peaches may have an infection, her anterior fontanelle is bulging and a rash has developed. You ask your consultant for advice and they suspect meningitis. Leptomeningitis is inflammation in which meninges?

arachnoid mater and pia mater

During a fight outside a nightclub, a man receives a penetrating knife wound that causes significant injury to the left glossopharyngeal nerve. From the following list of symptoms, which one could be the result of a lesion to the glossopharyngeal nerve?

loss of sensation to the left side of the posterior tongue

Given the exit location of the glossopharyngeal nerve from the skull, which of the following cranial nerves could also have been compromised as a result of the injury?

CN X (10)

Test your knowledge on scalp wounds and infections and learn about the potential dangers. Explore how infections can spread to the cranial cavity and the potential consequences, such as meningitis. Find out more about the structures involved and how they can impact the clinical context.

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