Review Erikson's Developmental Theory - Infant Stage

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18 Questions

What is the primary task during infancy according to Erikson's developmental theory?

Developing trust in caregivers and the world

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of toddlers going through the stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt?

Asking 300 questions a day

What is the primary focus of the preschool stage according to Erikson's developmental theory?

Developing a sense of initiative

What is the key difference between Industry and Initiative in Erikson's theory as applied to school-age children?

Industry focuses on mastering skills, while Initiative focuses on learning how to do things well.

What is a common challenge faced by adolescents according to Erikson's developmental theory?

Questioning their sense of identity

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic typically associated with toddlers as described in Erikson's theory?

'300 questions a day' curiosity

Which level of care in the U.S. healthcare system involves early detection and intervention to manage or control diseases at their early stages?

Secondary Prevention

What is the primary focus of Tertiary Prevention in the healthcare system?

Helping individuals regain previous health levels or achieve optimal function

Which of the following is an example of a Secondary Prevention measure in the healthcare system?

Cholesterol level testing

What is the main goal of Primary Prevention in the healthcare system?

Maintaining optimal wellness through healthy behaviors

Which level of care in the healthcare system involves disease prevention through encouraging individuals to adopt healthy behaviors?

Primary Prevention

What distinguishes Tertiary Prevention from other levels of care in the healthcare system?

Aims to help individuals regain previous health levels

During which phase of the nurse-patient caring relationship do they work together to solve problems and accomplish goals?

Working Phase

In the Zone of Personal Space, what distance range is considered Intimate?

0-8 inches

Which zone in the Zones of Touch includes areas where permission is not needed for touch?

Social Zone

What is the primary purpose of Correct Body Mechanics as practiced by nurses?

To prevent injury and promote efficient physical activity

What is the primary function of the Personal Zone in the Zone of Personal Space?

Taking a patient's history

Which phase of the nurse-patient caring relationship involves evaluating goal achievement with the patient?

Termination Phase

Study Notes

Erikson's Developmental Theory

  • Individuals pass through eight stages of psychosocial development, each characterized by a unique conflict or crisis that must be successfully resolved for healthy development to occur.

Infant (0-1 year)

  • Primary task is to develop a sense of trust in caregivers and the world around them.
  • Relies on consistent caregiving to feel safe and secure, thus developing trust.
  • Failure to establish trust may result in feelings of insecurity and mistrust in relationships later in life.

Toddler (1-3 years)

  • Develops a sense of independence versus feelings of shame and doubt.
  • Overly restrictive or critical parenting may lead to feelings of shame and doubt about one's abilities.
  • Characteristics of this stage include negativism (persistent "no" for an answer), temper tantrums, and ritualism (bedtime rituals).

Preschool (3-6 years) and School Age (6-12 years)

  • Pre-school: Initiative - learning how to do things.
  • School Age: Industry - learning how to do things well (mastery or perfection).
  • Children ask around 300 questions a day.

Adolescent (12-18 years)

  • Develops a coherent sense of self and identity versus confusion about one's role in life.
  • Achievement: Forming a clear and stable sense of identity, including personal values and life goals.
  • Fear of rejection or inability to form close relationships may result in feelings of isolation and loneliness.

Health Care Delivery System

Levels of Care

  • Five levels of care for which health care providers offer services: disease prevention; health promotion; and primary, secondary, and tertiary health care.

Primary Prevention

  • Focuses on promoting health and preventing illness before it occurs.
  • Encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviors and lifestyles to maintain optimal wellness.
  • Examples: smoking cessation campaigns, immunizations, healthy lifestyle education, regular physical activity programs.

Secondary Prevention

  • Involves early detection and intervention to manage or control diseases at their early stages.
  • Emphasizes screening and diagnosing conditions to provide timely treatment and prevent complications.
  • Examples: cancer screenings, cholesterol level testing, diabetes screenings, vision and hearing tests, screenings for STIs, skin cancer screenings, mental health screenings.

Tertiary Prevention

  • Aims to help individuals regain their previous level of health or achieve the highest level of function possible given their current health status.

Communication and Body Mechanics

Zones of Personal Space

  • Intimate (0-8 inches): performing physical assessment.
  • Personal (18in-4ft): taking a patient's history.
  • Socio-Consultative (9-12ft): giving directions to a stranger.
  • Public (12ft and more): speaking at forums; lecturing.

Zones of Touch

  • Social Zone (permission not needed): hands, arm, back, shoulder.
  • Consent Zone: mouth, wrist, feet.
  • Vulnerable Zone: face, neck, front of body.
  • Intimate Zone: genitalia, rectum.

Nurse-Patient Caring Relationship Phases

  • Pre-interaction Phase: before meeting a patient.
  • Orientation Phase: when the nurse and patient meet and get to know one another.
  • Working Phase: when the nurse and patient work together to solve problems and accomplish goals.
  • Termination Phase: reminding the patient that termination is near and evaluating goal achievement with the patient.

Body Mechanics

  • Involves the proper use of posture and movement techniques to prevent injury and promote efficient physical activity.
  • Correct body mechanics reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries, such as strains and sprains.
  • Nurses use body mechanics to safely lift, transfer, and position patients, reducing the risk of caregiver injuries.

Test your knowledge on Erikson's developmental theory focusing on the infant stage. Learn about the primary task during infancy, which is developing trust in caregivers and the world. Understand the importance of consistent caregiving in building a sense of security.

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