Respiratory Anatomy: Extrapulmonary Airways and Cranial Bones
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Respiratory Anatomy: Extrapulmonary Airways and Cranial Bones

Test your knowledge of the extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways, understanding the differences between conducting and respiratory airways, and the cranial bones involved in respiration.

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@LK3

Questions and Answers

Which muscle fibers facilitate active expiration?

Transversus thoracis

Where does the lingula belong?

L lung

What is the primary motor innervation to smooth muscle and glands in the lungs?

Vagus nerve

What forms the division between the superior and inferior mediastinum?

<p>Sternal angle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which blood vessels provide the dual blood supply to the lungs?

<p>Pulmonary artery and bronchial vessels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the costomediastinal recesses?

<p>To accumulate pleural fluid during eupnea</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where do the visceral afferents primarily arise from?

<p>Visceral pleura</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the parietal pleura?

<p>Sensory innervation only</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the pulmonary hilar nodes?

<p>Drain lymph from the lung tissues</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does disruption of surface tension in the pleural space lead to?

<p>Alveolar collapse</p> Signup and view all the answers

What primarily contributes to the autonomic (motor) innervation of the lung roots?

<p>Vagus nerve</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure forms a dome (cupula) over the apex of the lung?

<p>Parietal pleura</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of epithelium lines the initial 1.5cm of the nasal vestibule?

<p>Stratified squamous epithelium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the Larson’s maneuver mentioned in the text?

<p>Opens the airway and stimulates a sigh</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure serves as a vault for the tongue at rest?

<p>Hard palate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the inferior nasal conchae mentioned in the text?

<p>Increase surface area</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which bone forms the superior nasal septum?

<p>Ethmoid perpendicular plate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the atrium within the internal nose?

<p>Contains vibrissae for filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which muscle is responsible for protruding the tongue?

<p>Genioglossus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the palatopharyngeal folds?

<p>Raise during swallowing/deglutition</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal range of Atlanto-occipital flexion joint mobility needed for the 'sniffing position'?

<p>90-165 degrees</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the terminal sulcus on the dorsum of the tongue?

<p>Splits pre- and post-sulcus portions of the tongue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of muscle fills the posterior gaps in the trachea where the rings are absent?

<p>Smooth muscle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the blood supply for the bronchioles and pulmonary arteries?

<p>Bronchial artery only</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of bronchi runs more vertically and is wider?

<p>Primary main bronchi</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which bronchopulmonary segment is surgically resectable and includes a tertiary branch of the pulmonary artery?

<p>Tertiary bronchus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of bronchioles are involved in gas exchange and have alveoli present?

<p>Respiratory bronchioles</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of fibers weakly inhibits bronchoconstriction in the airways?

<p>Sympathetic fibers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of respiratory epithelium in the trachea and bronchus?

<p>Mucous secretion</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cells in the alveoli produce surfactant?

<p>Type II pneumocytes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of club cells in the respiratory bronchioles?

<p>Destroying airborne toxins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the mucociliary escalator?

<p>Trap particles and moisturize air</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cell type increases mucous production in response to metaplasia, such as in smokers?

<p>Mucous goblet cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the cricopharyngeus muscle?

<p>Constrict the walls of the pharynx during swallowing</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which muscle is NOT essential to close the laryngeal inlet?

<p>Stylopharyngeus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the internal longitudinal layer of pharyngeal muscles?

<p>Elevate the larynx and pharynx during swallowing and speaking</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where would you find the palatoglossal arch?

<p>Lateral pillars of fauces</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which muscle is responsible for maintaining tone of the hypopharynx and elevating the larynx?

<p>Thyrohyoid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the narrowest part of the adult upper airway?

<p>&quot;Rima glottidis&quot;</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of cricothyroid muscle?

<p>Tensing vocal cords causing them to close.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the diaphragm?

<p>Separate the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which muscle is innervated by the long thoracic nerve and can be targeted for a SAP block?

<p>Serratus anterior</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the superficial intercostal muscles?

<p>Elevate the ribs during respiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure correlates with T4-T5 vertebrae and marks the division between superior and inferior mediastina?

<p>Sternal angle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which muscle can assist in inspiration by lifting the rib cage and is innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)?

<p>Sternocleidomastoid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the floating ribs?

<p>End in posterior abdominal musculature without sternal connection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which nerve descends vertically on the anterior scalene muscle and innervates both cervical and brachial plexuses?

<p>Phrenic nerve</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the clavicle in relation to the thoracic cage?

<p>Increase anterior-posterior diameter of the thorax during inspiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the manubriosternal joint (sternal angle) in relation to other structures?

<p>Acts as a landmark for T4-T5 vertebrae</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the rib orientation described as 'pump handle' movement?

<p>Raise sternum superiorly/anteriorly to increase anterior-posterior diameter of thorax during inspiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What primarily contributes to changes in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities that facilitate venous return?

<p>Both a &amp; b</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure serves as a retrodiaphragmatic opening at T12 level?

<p>Aortic foramen</p> Signup and view all the answers

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