Recombinant DNA Technology and Genetic Engineering

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What is the main objective of genetic engineering?

To manipulate a single trait in an organism

Which type of breeding focuses on modifying the traits of a target organism using molecular techniques?

rDNA Technology breeding

What is involved in the first stage of the process of genetic engineering?

DNA Cleavage

In genetic engineering, how are new traits introduced into an organism?

By increasing or disrupting the expression of the desired gene

Which field is NOT listed as an application of genetic engineering in the text?

Music industry

What does Bt stand for in Bt Corn?

Bacillus thuringiensis

What distinguishes genetic engineering from classical breeding?

Genetic engineering involves modifying traits using molecular techniques.

Which organism is used for the production of Humulin®?

Transgenic animals

What is the main purpose of Golden Rice?

To increase vitamin A content

What process involves the transplantation of living cells, tissues, or organs between species?


Which type of corn is resistant to cornborer disease?

Bt Corn

What is the main product collected and purified in Gene Pharming?

Milk, eggs, or blood

In the DNA cleavage process of genetic engineering, which enzyme acts as 'molecular scissors'?


What term is used to describe the stage of introducing the rDNA into the vector cell to form a clone of cells?

Transformation and Expression

Which stage of rDNA technology involves the insertion of DNA fragments into plasmids or viral vectors?

Production of rDNA

Which process of genetic engineering involves identifying clones containing specific DNA fragments of interest?


What term is used to describe the process of separating DNA fragments based on their size by gel electrophoresis?

Gel Electrophoresis

Which stage of rDNA technology involves introducing the rDNA into bacterial cells to form a clone that contains the fragment-bearing vector?


Study Notes

Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic engineering is the simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change.
  • There are two types of breeding: classical breeding, which focuses on mating organisms with desirable qualities or traits, and genetic engineering, which involves molecular techniques to modify traits.
  • Genetic engineering has applications in the pharmaceutical, industrial, agricultural, medical, and other industries.

Process of Genetic Engineering

  • Stage 1: DNA Cleavage
    • Restriction endonuclease is used to cleave the source DNA into fragments.
    • Fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis.
    • Endonucleases act as "molecular scissors."
  • Stage 2: Production of rDNA
    • Fragments are inserted into plasmids or viral vectors that have been cleaved with the same restriction endonuclease.
    • Insertion is carried out by DNA ligases, resulting in Recombinant DNA (rDNA).
  • Stage 3: Cloning
    • Plasmids or viruses serve as vectors to introduce DNA fragments into cells (usually bacteria).
    • Each cell produces a clone of cells that contain the fragment-bearing vector.
  • Stage 4: Screening
    • Clones containing a specific DNA fragment of interest are identified from the clone library.

Applications of Genetic Engineering

  • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
    • Examples include Bt Corn (resistant to cornborer disease), Bt Eggplant (resistant to eggplant fruit and shoot borer), and Golden Rice (produces beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A).
  • Humulin
    • A man-made insulin used to control high blood sugar in adults and children with diabetes mellitus.
  • Gene Pharming
    • Genetically modified animals are used to produce human proteins with medicinal value.
    • Proteins are secreted into the animal's milk, eggs, or blood and then collected and purified.
  • Xenotransplantation
    • The transplantation of living cells, tissues, or organs from one species to another.

Learn about the processes involved in genetic engineering, discuss the applications of recombinant DNA, and explore the fundamentals of genetic information. Recap on genetic information, nucleic acids, and protein molecules.

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