Psychology Chapter: Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

EvaluativeSilicon avatar
EvaluativeSilicon
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

38 Questions

Who treated the 'hysterical' Anna O. in 1895?

Josef Breuer

What did Ivan Pavlov receive the Nobel Prize for in 1904?

His work on the physiology of digestion

What did Emil Kraepelin classify in 1913?

Various psychological disorders

Who experimented with conditioned fear in Little Albert?

John B. Watson

What was published by B.F. Skinner in 1938?

The Behavior of Organisms

What was published in 1943?

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

What was developed in the 1950s for severe psychotic disorders?

Effective drugs

When was the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-I) published?

1952

What is the primary focus of clinical psychology?

Helping individuals with abnormal behavior to find better coping and adjustment

Who suggested that psychological disorders have both biological and psychological causes?

Hippocrates

What is the term for the branch of psychology that deals with the systematic investigation of abnormal behavior?

Psychopathology

What is the characteristic of a person with a sanguine temperament?

Being generally optimistic and confident

What is the term for the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of mental illnesses?

Psychiatry

What is the characteristic of a person with a choleric temperament?

Being easily angered or bad-tempered

What is abnormal psychology?

The general branch of psychology that includes both psychopathology and clinical psychology

Who suggested that normal and abnormal behaviors are related to four bodily fluids or humors?

Galen

What is the description of abnormal behavior in a cultural context?

A dysfunction associated with present distress and impairment in functioning

What was Philipppe Pinel known for?

Pioneering a humane psychological approach to psychiatric care

What was the primary approach of the Spiritistic Model?

A supernatural approach blaming remote or supernatural forces

What was a common treatment approach in the 17th century?

Institutionalization in asylums

What was the title of the book written by Kramer and Sprenger in 1487?

The Witches' Hammer

What is the primary focus of the Medical Model?

Biogenic malfunctioning within the body

What is a characteristic of a mental disorder according to the DSM?

A syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior

What is a factor that determines the level of mental health of a person at any point in time?

Multiple social, psychological, and biological factors

What is considered a hallmark of mental health according to the WHO?

All of the above

What is an example of faulty perception?

Seeing things and hearing voices that are not present

What is associated with poor mental health?

Rapid social change, stressful work conditions, and unhealthy lifestyles

What is a characteristic of a person with a mental disorder?

Behavior that leads to unhappiness rather than self-fulfillment and limits one’s ability to function in expected roles or to adapt to one’s environment

What is a characteristic of significant personal distress?

Intense feelings of distress that impair the individual’s ability to function

What is NOT a characteristic of a mental disorder?

A normal response to a real threat or loss

Which temperament type is associated with being kind, considerate, and highly creative?

Melancholic

What was the common view on mental disorders in the 1300s?

They were caused by demons and witches

Who introduced moral therapy and made French mental institutions more humane?

Philippe Pinel

What was the significance of the discovery of the bacterium that causes syphilis?

It led to the discovery of penicillin as a cure

What was the main characteristic of the Phlegmatic temperament?

They are calm and unemotional

Who believed that insanity is the result of physical causes?

John P. Grey

Who developed the germ theory of disease?

Louis Pasteur

What was the significance of Dorothea Dix's campaigns?

She campaigned for more humane treatment in US mental institutions

Study Notes

Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

  • Abnormal psychology is a general branch in psychology that includes both psychopathology and clinical psychology.
  • It studies abnormal ways of helping people who are affected by psychological disorders.

Branches of Psychology

  • Psychopathology: deals with the systematic investigation of abnormal behavior.
  • Clinical psychology: focuses on psychological knowledge and practice used in helping a person with abnormal behavior to find better coping and adjustment.
  • Psychiatry: a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of mental illnesses.

Timeline of Significant Events in Abnormal Psychology

  • 400 BC: Hippocrates suggests that psychological disorders have both biological and psychological causes.
  • 200 CE: Galen suggests that normal and abnormal behaviors are related to four bodily fluids or humors: Choleric, Sanguine, Melancholic, and Phlegmatic.
  • 1300s: Superstition runs rampant, and mental disorders are blamed on demons and witches; exorcisms are performed to rid victims of evil spirits.
  • 1400s: Enlightened view that insanity is caused by mental or emotional stress gains momentum, and depression and anxiety are again regarded by some as disorders.
  • 1400-1800: Bloodletting and leeches are used to rid the body of unhealthy fluids and restore chemical balance.
  • 1500s: Paracelsus suggests that the moon and the stars, not possession by the devil, affect people’s psychological functioning.
  • 1793: Philippe Pinel introduces moral therapy and makes French mental institutions more humane.
  • 1825-1875: Syphilis is differentiated from other types of psychosis in that it is caused by a specific bacterium; ultimately, penicillin is found to cure syphilis.
  • 1848: Dorothea Dix successfully campaigns for more human treatment in US mental institutions.
  • 1854: John P. Grey believes that insanity is the result of physical causes, thus de-emphasizing psychological treatments.
  • 1870: Louis Pasteur develops his germ theory of disease, which helps identify the bacterium that causes syphilis.
  • 1895: Josef Breuer treats the “hysterical” Anna O., leading to Freud’s development of Psychoanalytic Theory.
  • 1900: Sigmund Freud publishes “The Interpretation of Dreams”
  • 1904: Ivan Pavlov receives the Nobel Prize for his work on the physiology of digestion, which leads him to identify conditioned reflexes in dogs.
  • 1913: Emil Kraepelin classifies various psychological disorders from a biological point of view and publishes work on diagnosis.
  • 1920: John B. Watson experiments with conditioned fear in Little Albert, using a white rat.
  • 1930: Insulin shock therapy, electric shock treatments, and brain surgery begin to be used to treat psychopathology.
  • 1938: B.F. Skinner publishes “The Behavior of Organisms,” which describes the principles of operant conditioning.
  • 1943: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is published.
  • 1946: Anna Freud publishes “Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense”
  • 1950: The first effective drugs for severe psychotic disorders are developed, and humanistic psychology gains acceptance.
  • 1952: The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-I) is published.
  • 1958: Joseph Wolpe effectively treats patients with phobias using systematic desensitization based on principles of behavioral science.
  • 1990s: Increasingly sophisticated research methods are developed, and no one influence – biological or environmental – is found to cause psychological disorders in isolation from the other.

Definition of Normality and Abnormality

  • Failure in life tasks or inability to cope with society
  • Behavior that leads to unhappiness rather than self-fulfillment and limits one’s ability to function in expected roles or to adapt to one’s environments.
  • Significant personal distress caused by troublesome emotions, such as anxiety, fear, or depression.
  • Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality

Mental Health and Mental Disorders

  • Mental health: a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and can contribute to his or her community.
  • Mental disorder: a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning.

Models Explaining Abnormal Behavior

  • Traditional models:
    • Spiritistic model: abnormal behavior is the product of remote or supernatural forces.
    • Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches’ Hammer): presents a comprehensive theory of behavior and is the standard guide to the diagnosis, behavior, trial, and punishment of witches for two centuries.
    • Philippe Pinel: father of modern psychiatry, instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the care of psychiatric patients.
  • Medical model: abnormal behavior is the result of some malfunctioning within the body.

This quiz covers the introduction to abnormal psychology, its history, and branches of psychology that study abnormal behavior. It's an essential topic for psychology students and researchers.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser