Pragmatics and Implicature in Language
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Pragmatics and Implicature in Language

This quiz tests your understanding of pragmatics and implicature in language, using examples from conversations to illustrate the concept.

Created by
@FastestDivergence

Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of the Htcleft construction in English?

To communicate what the speaker believes the listener may already be thinking

What is necessary for reference to be successful in a conversation?

Collaboration and cooperation between the speaker and listener

What is implied when a speaker says 'my car'?

The speaker actually has the car being mentioned

What is the purpose of the utterance in example [20b.]?

<p>To attribute the foreground entailment to the listener</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the assumption behind the Cooperation Principle?

<p>Speakers and listeners are cooperating with each other</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of more being communicated than is said?

<p>The utterance in [20b.], 'It wasn't ME who took your money'</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key feature of conversational implicatures?

<p>They are based on the cooperative principle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Bert assume about Ernie's behavior in their conversation?

<p>That Ernie is being cooperative</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of adding 'in fact' to an utterance?

<p>To cancel the implicature</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is unique about conventional implicatures compared to conversational implicatures?

<p>They are associated with specific words</p> Signup and view all the answers

What kind of implicature is involved in Ernie's response 'Obviously, yes!'?

<p>Conversational implicature</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are conversational implicatures typically calculated?

<p>By the listener through inference</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of conversational implicatures?

<p>They are deniable</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the implication of the English conjunction 'but'?

<p>It implies a contrast between the information in p and q</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the inferred meaning of Ernie's response 'Of course not!'?

<p>The answer is 'no' and the question was unnecessary</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the cooperative principle in conversation?

<p>To maintain a mutually respectful and informative conversation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key difference between conversational and conventional implicatures?

<p>Conversational implicatures are based on the cooperative principle, while conventional implicatures are not</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the implication of saying 'You have won five dollars!'?

<p>You have won exactly five dollars, no more or no less</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Implicatures and Cooperation

  • In conversation, speakers can communicate more than they explicitly say, relying on the listener's inferences to understand the intended meaning.
  • The cooperative principle assumes that speakers and listeners are generally cooperating with each other, sharing knowledge and avoiding misleading information.

Htcleft Constructions and Foreground Entailments

  • An Htcleft construction in English allows the speaker to communicate what they believe the listener may already be thinking (foreground entailment).
  • Example: "It was ROVER that chased the squirrels" or "It wasn't ME who took your money".
  • The speaker can attribute the foreground entailment to the listener without stating it, attributing responsibility or accusation.

Conversational Implicatures

  • Conversational implicatures are calculated by listeners via inference, based on the cooperative principle and maxims.
  • Conversational implicatures can be:
    • Calculated by the listener
    • Suspended using expressions like "at least"
    • Cancelled by adding further information, following expressions like "in fact"
    • Reinforced with additional information
  • Conversational implicatures are deniable, and speakers can deny intended meanings.

Conventional Implicatures

  • Conventional implicatures are not based on the cooperative principle or maxims, but are associated with specific words.
  • Conventional implicatures result in additional conveyed meanings when certain words are used.
  • Example: The conjunction "but" implies contrast between two pieces of information.
  • Conventional implicatures do not rely on conversation or special contexts for interpretation.

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