Plant Biology and Genetics

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10 Questions

What is the result of the Law of Segregation during gamete formation?

Each offspring inherits one allele

What is the role of light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis?

ATP and NADPH are generated

What is the process of creating a complementary RNA molecule from a DNA template?

Transcription

What is the characteristic of semiconservative replication?

Each new DNA molecule contains one old strand and one new strand

What is the primary function of the C3, C4, and CAM pathways?

Carbon fixation

What is the primary function of auxins in plant growth and development?

Regulating cell elongation and division

Which plant hormone is involved in promoting stem elongation and cell growth?

Gibberellin

What is the role of cytokinins in plant development?

Promoting cell division and differentiation

Which of the following is NOT a function of ethylene in plant development?

Regulating cell elongation and division

What is the term for the movement of water into or out of a plant cell based on solute concentration?

Osmosis

Study Notes

Genetics

Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

  • Law of Segregation: Each pair of alleles separates from each other during gamete formation, resulting in each offspring inheriting one allele.
  • Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles for different genes are sorted independently of each other during gamete formation.
  • Law of Dominance: One allele can be dominant over another allele, resulting in the dominant allele being expressed in the phenotype.

DNA Structure and Replication

  • Double Helix Model: DNA is composed of two complementary strands twisted together with sugar and phosphate molecules.
  • Replication: DNA replication occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle, resulting in two identical copies of DNA.
  • Semiconservative Replication: Each new DNA molecule contains one old strand and one new strand.

Gene Expression

  • Transcription: The process of creating a complementary RNA molecule from a DNA template.
  • Translation: The process of building a protein from an RNA molecule.
  • Gene Regulation: The control of gene expression, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation.

Plant Physiology

Photosynthesis

  • Light-Dependent Reactions: Light energy is used to generate ATP and NADPH.
  • Light-Independent Reactions: Carbon fixation occurs, resulting in the production of glucose.
  • C3, C4, and CAM Pathways: Different pathways for carbon fixation, adapted to different environmental conditions.

Plant Water Relations

  • Osmosis: The movement of water into or out of a plant cell based on solute concentration.
  • Transpiration: The loss of water through the plant, driven by evaporation from the leaves.
  • Root Pressure: The pressure exerted by roots to push water up the plant.

Plant Nutrition

  • Macronutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, essential for plant growth and development.
  • Micronutrients: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, also essential for plant growth and development.

Plant Hormones

Auxins

  • Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA): The most common auxin, involved in cell elongation and cell division.
  • Apical Dominance: Auxins promote the growth of the apical meristem, suppressing the growth of lateral buds.
  • Root Development: Auxins promote root growth and differentiation.

Gibberellins

  • Stem Elongation: Gibberellins promote cell elongation and stem growth.
  • Seed Germination: Gibberellins stimulate seed germination.

Cytokinins

  • Cell Division: Cytokinins promote cell division and differentiation.
  • Root Development: Cytokinins promote root growth and differentiation.

Ethylene

  • Fruit Ripening: Ethylene promotes fruit ripening and senescence.
  • Abscission: Ethylene promotes the abscission of leaves and flowers.

Test your knowledge of plant biology and genetics, covering topics such as Mendel's laws, DNA structure, gene expression, photosynthesis, plant hormones, and more.

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