Physiological Psychology: Spinal Cord and Nerves
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Physiological Psychology: Spinal Cord and Nerves

This quiz covers the physiological and biological aspects of psychology, focusing on the spinal cord, spinal nerves, and plexuses. Topics include the structure and function of the spinal cord, the 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and the four major plexuses.

Created by
@WellConnectedZombie

Questions and Answers

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there in the human body?

31

Which plexus innervates the neck?

Cervical plexus

What is the primary function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Rest and digest

What is the origin of nerve fibers in the sympathetic nervous system?

<p>Spinal cord segments T1-L2/L3</p> Signup and view all the answers

What form does information take inside neurons?

<p>Electrical signal</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many cervical pairs of spinal nerves are there?

<p>8</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the lumbar plexus?

<p>Innervates the lower abdominal wall, anterior hip and thigh</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the flow of fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Craniosacral</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of neurotransmitters in the synapse?

<p>To carry signals across the synapses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the passage or crossing of signals from one neuron to another?

<p>Neurotransmission</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of chronic drug use on neurotransmission?

<p>It causes long-term changes in neurotransmission</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in the body?

<p>To innervate involuntary structures of the body</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of changes in gene expression caused by chronic drug use?

<p>Changes in neuron function or structure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of brain circuits in neurotransmission?

<p>To relay information about the environment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the gap between one neuron and the next called?

<p>Synapse</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of balanced functioning of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems?

<p>Maintenance of homeostasis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are neurotransmitters released from?

<p>Axon terminal of a neuron</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to neurotransmitters after they are released?

<p>They meet one of three fates in the synapse</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of cocaine altering genetic transcription factors in mice?

<p>Changes in the brain's complement of proteins associated with addiction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can be a result of epigenetic changes in the brain?

<p>Passing of these changes to the next generation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can happen to new dendrites in response to drug use?

<p>They may proliferate as a compensatory response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of enzymes in the synapse?

<p>They break down neurotransmitters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of THC exposure in rats?

<p>Alterations in glutamate and cannabinoid receptor formation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the component of marijuana that is responsible for its psychoactive effects?

<p>TCH</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism by which some drugs damage neurons?

<p>By damaging the axons of neurons that release neurotransmitters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of disruptions in serotonin neurotransmitter?

<p>Significant defects in thinking and motor skills</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal function of the cycle of release, breakup, and neuron reentry?

<p>To maintain the amount of neurotransmitters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of repeated exposure to toxic drugs on neurons?

<p>The effects of the drug accumulate with each exposure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the special structure that spans the neuron membrane?

<p>To reenter the neuron with neurotransmitters</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of methamphetamine on dopamine-releasing neurons?

<p>It damages dopamine-releasing neurons</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of damage to axons that release serotonin?

<p>Disruptions in serotonin neurotransmitter</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the drug that damages axons that release serotonin?

<p>MMDA/Ecstasy/Molly</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Spinal Cord, Nerves, and Plexuses

  • Spinal nerves emerge from segments of the spinal cord
  • 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal spinal nerve
  • Four major plexuses: cervical (C1-C4), brachial (C5-T1), lumbar (L1-L4), and sacral (L4-S4) plexuses, which innervate different parts of the body

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

  • Sympathetic nervous system: nerve fibers have thoracolumbar origin (T1-L2/L3 spinal cord) and synapse with prevertebral and paravertebral ganglia
  • Parasympathetic nervous system: "rest and digest" or "feed and breed" activities, slows down cardiovascular system, diverts blood away from muscles, and increases peristalsis and gland secretion
  • Craniosacral flow: brainstem (cranio) and S2-S4 spinal cord segments (sacral)

Neurotransmission and Synapses

  • Information takes the form of an electrical signal inside neurons
  • To cross the synapse, information takes the form of a chemical signal
  • Neurotransmitters are specialized molecules that carry signals across the synapses
  • Neurotransmission is the process by which signaling molecules are released by the axon terminal of a neuron and bind to receptors on the dendrites of another neuron

Neurotransmitters and Drugs

  • Neurotransmitters relay information about the environment and shape how we respond
  • Chronic drug use can cause long-term effects in neurotransmission abnormalities
  • Examples: cocaine alters genetic transcription factors and expressions of hundreds of genes in mice, leading to increased drug-seeking and addiction-like behaviors

Fate of Neurotransmitters

  • Neurotransmitters can meet one of three fates in the synapse: attach to another receptor, encounter enzyme (breaks them apart), or transport back to the sending neuron via special structure
  • Examples: Club drug (MMDA/Ecstasy/Molly) damages axons that produce serotonin, leading to memory problems; methamphetamine damages dopamine-releasing neurons, causing defects in thinking and motor skills

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