CH5

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14 Questions

What is the main difference between ionic and covalent bonds?

The way electrons are shared or transferred between atoms

What is the Octet Rule in Lewis dot structures?

An atom is stabilized by having its valence energy level filled with 8 electrons

What type of bond is formed between a metal and a nonmetal?

Ionic bond

What is the purpose of Lewis dot structures?

To represent the valence electrons of an atom

What is the difference between valence electrons and other electrons in an atom?

Only valence electrons participate in chemical bonding

What is the result of an atom having its valence energy level filled with 8 electrons?

The atom is stabilized

What type of bond is formed between two nonmetals?

Covalent bond

What is the purpose of the Octet Rule in bonding?

To ensure an atom has a full valence energy level

What happens when an anion is formed?

It gains electrons

What is the result of the reaction between lithium and fluorine atoms?

An ionic bond is formed

What is the term for a positively charged ion?

Cation

What is the term for a negatively charged ion?

Anion

What is the characteristic of an ionic bond?

Electrons are transferred from one atom to another

What is the name of the compound formed between lithium and fluorine?

Lithium fluoride

Study Notes

Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds

  • High melting points
  • Hard and rigid
  • Brittle
  • Conductive (sometimes)
  • Conductivity and brittleness come from the atomic-scale arrangement of atoms
  • High melting and boiling points due to extremely high bond strength

Covalent Bond (Non-polar)

  • A chemical bond in which two or more electrons are shared by two nonmetal atoms
  • Electrons are equally shared (same elements)
  • Example: H2 (Hydrogen molecule)
  • Sharing electrons fulfills the octet rule

Covalent Bonding

  • Single bond: two atoms share one pair of electrons (2 electrons)
  • Double bond: two atoms share two pairs of electrons (4 electrons)
  • Triple bond: two atoms share three pairs of electrons (6 electrons)
  • Triple bonds are shorter and stronger than single bonds

Lewis Dot Structures

  • Represent electrons as dots around the atomic symbol
  • Same column = same dot structure
  • Dots represent valence electrons
  • Octet Rule: an atom is stabilized by having its valence energy level filled (2s + 6p = 8 electrons)

Importance of Ionic Bonds

  • Involved in cell signaling and muscle contraction
  • Important in determining cell shapes, catalytic reactions, and neuron functions
  • Play a role in shaping tertiary and quaternary proteins
  • Help determine the shapes of chromosomes depending on what atoms bond to each other

Importance of Covalent Bonds

  • Carbon-Carbon bonds (C-C) form the basis of most biomolecules
  • Covalent bonds link together amino acids in chains, creating peptides
  • Found holding together amines
  • Covalent bonds in large networks give rise to substances with very high melting points (e.g., diamonds)

Types of Bonds

  • Ionic bonds: transfer of electrons between a metal and nonmetal
  • Covalent bonds: sharing of electrons between two nonmetals
  • Metallic bonds: pooling of electrons in a metal lattice

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