Pharmacotherapy IX (PHAR 9969): CNS Module Lecture 01-10-24 Antidepressants MOA

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32 Questions

What is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. for ages 15-44?

Depression

What is the lifetime prevalence of depression in women compared to men?

Twice the rate

What percentage of depressed people are likely to commit suicide?

15%

What is the total economic toll of depression in the U.S. annually?

$100 billion

What is the Monoamine hypothesis related to?

Depression

Which neurotransmitter system is discussed in the objectives related to depression?

Serotonergic system

Which co-morbidities occur more frequently in women?

Anxiety disorders and eating disorders

What do women respond better to in terms of treatment for depression?

Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

What enzyme is responsible for metabolizing the neurotransmitter monoamine?

MAO

Which neurotransmitter deficiency can cause depression?

Serotonin (5-HT)

What is implicated in the alterations in the norepinephrine (NE) system in depression?

α2-adrenergic autoreceptors and decreased NE transporter binding sites

What is associated with an increased risk of developing mood disorders?

Experiencing significant life events at an early age

What is often disrupted in patients with depression?

Circadian rhythms

What gets shorter as the night goes on in depressed patients?

REM periods

"Stress-induced psychiatric disorders" involve which axis?

"Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)" Axis

Where are the CRH axons/terminals localized in human brain?

Locus Coeruleus and raphe n.

What does the term 'neuraxis' refer to in the context of neuroanatomy?

A line beginning at the base of the spinal cord and ending at the front of the brain

Which component is part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) according to the text?

Sympathetic division

What is the role of the somatic nervous system in the nervous system?

Controls voluntary muscles

Which division of the autonomic system is responsible for 'rest and digest' functions?

Parasympathetic division

Where are the soma of sensory afferent nerves located?

Dorsal root ganglia

Which part of the nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord?

Central nervous system (CNS)

Which division of the autonomic nervous system dominates during times of stress, excitement, and exertion?

Sympathetic division

Where are the soma of efferent parasympathetic neurons located?

In the brain

What is the function of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?

Decrease respiration

Which neurotransmitter is released by preganglionic sympathetic neurons?

Acetylcholine

What do several cranial nerves innervate, making them part of the autonomic nervous system?

Glands and organs

Which layer of tissue covers and protects the brain and spinal cord?

Meninges

What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system stimulate during times of stress?

Heart rate

Where do the axons of efferent sympathetic nerves synapse with cells?

Near the spinal cord

What is regulated by the autonomic nervous system?

Digestion and blood pressure

What is characteristic of parasympathetic postganglionic neurons?

Are quite short and release acetylcholine

This quiz covers the mechanism of action of antidepressants, including the monoamine hypothesis of depression, pathophysiology of depression, and neurotransmitter systems. It also discusses major depressive disorder (MDD) and its impact as a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness affecting millions of people globally.

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