Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Grades
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Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Grades

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Questions and Answers

What is the difference between Grade 3 and Grade 4 edema?

Grade 3: 6 mm deep pit with dependent extremity full and swollen. Grade 4: 8 mm deep pit with dependent extremity grossly distorted.

What are the common causes of restricted chest wall excursion?

Lobar pneumonia, scoliosis, muscle weakness, paralysis, or a surgical incision.

How is the normal chest wall excursion measured?

About 3.25 inches (8.5 cm) in a young adult between 20 and 30 years of age, using a tape measure at the level of the axilla and xiphoid.

What is the method for evaluating apical or upper lobe motion?

<p>The physical therapist places hands over the anterior chest, with the heel of the hand at the fourth rib level and the fingertips reaching toward the upper trapezii.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is Chest Wall Excursion useful in patient evaluation?

<p>It allows the therapist to observe a baseline level to measure progress or decline in a patient's condition.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the rebound time in edema evaluation?

<p>It indicates the severity of edema, with Grade 3 rebounding in up to 30 seconds and Grade 4 rebounding in more than 30 seconds.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the key anatomic structures in the topographic anatomic landmarks of the chest?

<p>Sternum, clavicles, suprasternal notch, sternomanubrial angle, costal angle, vertebra prominens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three vertical lines in the anterior view of the thorax?

<p>Midsternal line, midclavicular lines, anterior axillary line</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal configuration of the thoracic cage?

<p>Elliptically shaped when free of disease, with an AP-to-lateral diameter of 1:2 or 5:7</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal respiratory rate range in adults?

<p>Between 14 and 20 breaths per minute</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is jugular venous distention (JVD) helpful in clinical evaluation?

<p>Bilateral distention indicates congestive heart failure (CHF), while unilateral distension suggests a localized problem</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some visual inspection points to note during physical examination of the chest?

<p>Skin color, scars, bruises, presence of clubbing of the digits, and signs of trauma</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the true physiological position for humans according to the text?

<p>Upright position</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of side-lying positions on oxygen transport?

<p>Intermediate between upright and supine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which position is considered nonphysiological and deleterious to oxygen transport?

<p>Recumbent supine position</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main advantage of the head-down position mentioned in the text?

<p>Augments oxygen transport</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the side-lying position accentuate at the expense of during chest wall expansion?

<p>Anteroposterior expansion at the expense of transverse excursion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the active cycle of breathing technique?

<p>Consists of repeated cycles of three ventilatory phases</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why may some patients not tolerate the amount or frequency of exercise required for airway clearance?

<p>They may not tolerate it as the sole method of airway clearance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential contraindication for using exercise in patients with certain conditions?

<p>Exercise-induced bronchospasm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is indicated before the inhalation of bronchodilator medications during airway clearance maneuvers?

<p>Allow for optimal deposition of medication</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the upright position considered optimal for movement in humans according to the text?

<p>It reflects the requirements of daily activities</p> Signup and view all the answers

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