P53 Signaling Pathway: Tumor Suppressor Protein
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P53 Signaling Pathway: Tumor Suppressor Protein

Learn about the p53 signaling pathway, a tumor suppressor protein encoded by the TP53 gene. Understand its role as a transcription factor and its significance in tumor development and cancer. Explore its interactions with DNA tumor viruses and its validation as a tumor suppressor gene.

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@ImpressedLesNabis

Questions and Answers

What is the main function of the p53 protein?

Activating DNA repair proteins when DNA is damaged

Which gene encodes the p53 tumor suppressor protein in humans?

TP53

What is the role of p53 in controlling the cell cycle?

Halting the cell cycle at the G1/S regulation point on DNA damage recognition

What is the significance of p53 mutations in human cancers?

<p>They are found in up to 50% of human cancers</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does p53 respond to irreparable DNA damage?

<p>By initiating apoptosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which family includes p53, p63, and p73?

<p>p53 family</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of p53 in response to cellular insults?

<p>Inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for p53 being referred to as the guardian of the genome?

<p>Its ability to protect the cell from cellular insults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the significance of the discovery of genes p63 and p73 in relation to p53?

<p>They bear significant homology to p53</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of MDM-2, a p53-activated gene?

<p>It degrades p53</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of MDM-X in relation to MDM-2?

<p>It inhibits the degradation of p53</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of ATM protein kinase CHK2?

<p>Activating p53</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do stress signals such as UV and genotoxic drugs impact the activation of p53?

<p>They delay or reduce p53 activation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of increased p53 activity?

<p>Upregulation of MDM-2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of ATR kinase CHK1 after UV irradiation?

<p>Altering the p53 response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of p63 and p73 in relation to tumor suppression?

<p>They play a similar role as their well-known sibling p53</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of p53 in response to DNA damage?

<p>Activate DNA repair proteins, induce growth arrest, or initiate apoptosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of p53 in controlling the integrity and correctness of processes in individual cells and the organism as a whole?

<p>To control the integrity and correctness of all processes in each individual cell and in the organism as a whole</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the p53 protein?

<p>To act as a transcription factor that activates and represses target genes implicated in cell cycle control</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the members of the p53 family?

<p>p53, p63, and p73</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of p53 mutations in human cancers?

<p>P53 mutations are found in up to 50% of human cancers</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does p53 ensure the genetic identity of cells and prevent the selection of abnormal cells?

<p>Gathers information about ongoing events in the cell through multiple signaling pathways</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the names of the two genes discovered almost 20 years after p53?

<p>p63 and p73</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of p53 in response to cellular insults?

<p>Inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of increased p53 activity?

<p>Upregulation of MDM-2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of MDM-2, a p53-activated gene?

<p>Binds to p53 and acts as an E-3 ubiquitin ligase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the p53 protein?

<p>Sensing DNA damage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of MDM-X in relation to MDM-2?

<p>MDM-X can oligomerize with MDM-2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of p53 mutations in human cancers?

<p>p53 mutations are found to reside on chromosomes that are frequently lost or mutated in human cancers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of p63 and p73 in relation to tumor suppression?

<p>Speculation about their ability to behave like p53 as tumor suppressor genes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason for p53 being referred to as the guardian of the genome?

<p>Its ability to protect the cell by responding to cellular insults</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which family includes p53, p63, and p73?

<p>p53 family</p> Signup and view all the answers

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