Org. Theory and Design: Chapter 12 (MC)

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Which type of decision making involves selecting easy, repetitive, and routine operating procedures?

Programmed decision making

What is the primary goal of organizational decision making?

To create the most value for organizational stakeholders

Which model of decision making involves a straightforward three-stage process?

Rational model of decision making

What type of decisions allow an organization to find solutions to changing and uncertain conditions?

Nonprogrammed decision making

Which type of decision making provides stability and increases predictability?

Programmed decision making

What is the main characteristic of nonprogrammed decision making?

Creative, novel, and unstructured decisions

What is one way organizations can promote learning and change?

Implement strategies for organizational learning

How can an organization convert events into learning opportunities?

By redesigning its structure and culture

What is the nature of the top-management team in the circle configuration?

Managers from different functions interact with one another and with the CEO

In game theory, what is a sequential move game?

Players move in turn, and one player selects a strategy after considering its rival's choice of strategies

What does a devil's advocate do?

Resist influence attempts and convince others that new ideas or plans may be flawed, wrong, or harmful

What is a collateral organizational structure?

An organization set up parallel to the formal organizational structure

According to the Carnegie model of decision making, what is 'bounded rationality'?

The limited capacity of managers to process information

In the incrementalist model of organizational decision making, what is the primary reason for managers choosing incrementally different courses of action?

Lack of information and foresight

According to the garbage-can model of decision making, what do managers do?

Propose solutions to problems that do not exist

What is the essence of organizational learning according to James March?

Exploration and exploitation

At which level is it important for managers to encourage team learning?

Group level

What is the primary criticism made by researchers about the rational model of decision making?

Assuming that decision makers have all the information they need

What is the nature of organizational learning?

Increasing organizational effectiveness through continuous improvement

What is the main goal of creating a learning organization according to the text?

Increasing potential for organizational learning

What is the primary strategy proposed by James March for organizational learning?

Exploration and exploitation

According to the text, what is the essence of individual mastery in organizational learning?

Empowerment and encouragement for employees

What does the incrementalist model argue as the primary limitation for managers in making decisions?

Lack of information and foresight

What does bounded rationality refer to according to the Carnegie model?

Limited capacity of managers to process information

What is the main goal of building a shared vision in a learning organization?

To create a mental model for framing problems and opportunities

What distinguishes adaptive cultures from inert cultures in terms of facilitating organizational learning?

Inert cultures are cautious and conservative, not valuing experimentation and risk-taking

What is the purpose of an IT-based knowledge management system in an organization?

To share and integrate expertise within and between functions and divisions

When is a personalization approach to knowledge management pursued by an organization?

When technology is changing rapidly

What factor may lead to a reduction in the level of organizational learning over time according to Nystrom and Starbuck's model?

Blindness and rigidity in organizational decision making

What do cognitive biases such as illusion of control, frequencies, and representativeness primarily affect in organizational decision making?

The perception of threats facing the organization

What does cognitive dissonance lead to in organizational decision making?

A state of discomfort or anxiety due to inconsistent beliefs and actions

What is the main consequence of the illusion of control in organizational decision making?

An overestimation of the extent to which managers can control a situation

What does escalation of commitment lead managers to do in decision making?

To remain committed to a losing course of action

Test your understanding of Senge’s principles for designing a learning organization and the aspects of organizational culture. Explore concepts related to exploitative and explorative learning, building shared vision, and the influence of organizational culture.

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