Operating Systems: Computer System Components
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Operating Systems: Computer System Components

This quiz covers the basics of operating systems, focusing on computer system components, hardware, and applications. Learn about the layer between applications and hardware, abstractions for applications, and how operating systems manage and hide hardware details.

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@ComfortingSapphire

Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of an Operating System in a computer system?

Acts as a layer between applications and hardware, providing abstractions for applications, managing and hiding hardware details, and providing protection.

What is the purpose of a bootstrap program in a computer system?

To initialize the operating system by locating and loading the system kernel and executing the first process.

What is the role of a memory controller in a computer system?

Ensures organized access to memory, allowing concurrent access by multiple parts of the computer system.

What is a typical boot sequence in a computer system?

<p>A set of operations performed by the computer when it is switched on, which loads an operating system.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of device controllers in a computer system?

<p>To connect devices (such as disks, USB peripherals, display adapters, and network adapters) to the CPU through a common bus.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary concern of an Operating System in terms of process management?

<p>Preventing one process or user from clobbering another.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of a boot loader in a computer system?

<p>To load the operating system into memory and start it.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of a device controller in a computer system?

<p>To inform the CPU to initiate or finish an event by triggering an interrupt.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an interrupt in the context of computer systems?

<p>A signal sent by a device to the processor to request the processor to perform a particular task.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens when the CPU is interrupted?

<p>The CPU stops what it is doing and immediately transfers execution to the interrupt service routine (ISR).</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of an interrupt handler in a computer system?

<p>To determine the nature of the interrupt and perform the necessary actions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do separate segments of code in the OS determine what action to take for each type of interrupt?

<p>They contain the addresses of all the service routines for the interrupt.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main purpose of the mode bit in the Status Register?

<p>To distinguish between a task that is executed on behalf of the OS or user.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to the computation when an interrupt occurs in a computer system?

<p>The computation resumes as though the interrupt had not occurred.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why can't user programs issue I/O instructions directly?

<p>Because I/O instructions are privileged instructions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the method used by a process to request action by the operating system?

<p>A system call.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between a hardware interrupt and a software interrupt?

<p>A hardware interrupt is triggered by a signal sent to the CPU, usually through the system bus, while a software interrupt is triggered by executing a system call.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does the OS need to protect the interrupt vector?

<p>To prevent a user program from gaining control of the computer in monitor mode.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a trap in the context of computer systems?

<p>A trap is a software-generated interrupt caused by an error, such as arithmetic overflow, division by zero, or executing an illegal instruction.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of dual-mode operation in computer hardware?

<p>To differentiate between at least two modes of operations: user mode and monitor mode.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between main memory and secondary storage?

<p>Main memory is the only storage media that the CPU can access directly, whereas secondary storage provides large nonvolatile storage capacity and acts as an extension of main memory.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to the mode when an interrupt or fault occurs?

<p>The hardware switches to monitor mode.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the disk controller in a computer system?

<p>The disk controller determines the logical interaction between the disk device and the computer.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of caching in a computer system?

<p>Caching involves keeping information in memory, which is then copied into the cache when required, to improve system performance.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two registers that determine the range of legal addresses a program may access?

<p>Base register and Limit register</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are load instructions for the base and limit registers privileged?

<p>Because they are used to implement memory protection, and only the operating system should be able to modify them.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of a timer in a computer system?

<p>To ensure the operating system maintains control and to implement time sharing.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens when the timer reaches the value 0?

<p>An interrupt occurs.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is memory protection necessary in a computer system?

<p>To prevent programs from accessing unauthorized memory regions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which mode does the operating system have unrestricted access to both monitor and user memory?

<p>Monitor mode</p> Signup and view all the answers

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