Carcinogenesis Quiz

PlayfulHarmony avatar
PlayfulHarmony
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

28 Questions

What is the Warburg effect in cancer cell metabolism?

Increased conversion of glucose to lactate even in the presence of oxygen

What is the function of p16 in the cell cycle?

Inhibits Cdk4Cyclin D complex (G1cdk complex) needed for progression through the cell cycle

Which gene is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers?

APC

What is the role of telomerase in cancer cells?

Allows cancer cells to continue replicating indefinitely

What is the main difference between oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes?

Oncogenes promote cell growth and division, while tumor suppressor genes inhibit cell cycle progression

What is the significance of hypermethylation in cancer?

It can silence tumor suppressor genes like p16

What type of mutation is found in all progeny and begins the process towards malignant transformation?

Initiating mutation

Which type of gene mutation generally involves gain-of-function mutations?

Proto-oncogenes

Which type of mutation generally involves loss-of-function mutations and contributes to the formation of oncogenes?

Tumour suppressor genes

Which gene family is commonly associated with gain-of-function mutations in certain cancers?

PI3K

Which gene, induced by Ras/MAPK signaling, contributes to cancer by increasing cell proliferation and growth?

MYC

Which gene functions as a key negative regulator of the G1/S checkpoint and is directly or indirectly inactivated in most human cancers?

RB

Which gene is known as the 'Guardian of the Genome' and regulates cell cycle progression, DNA repair, cellular senescence, and apoptosis?

TP53

Which type of mutations in cyclin D and Cdk4 affect progression through the G1/S checkpoint and are implicated in various cancers?

Gain-of-function mutations

Which gene is a tumor suppressor that applies brakes to cell proliferation and recognizes genotoxic stress?

p53

Which downstream component of receptor tyrosine kinases signaling pathways is the most common abnormality in human tumors?

Ras

Which gene family is frequently mutated or silenced in many human malignancies, with inherited mutations implicated in familial forms of melanoma?

CDKIs

Which gene contributes to carcinogenesis by failing to arrest the cell cycle?

p53

Which gene family is also common in certain cancers, with 30% of breast carcinomas having gain-of-function mutations?

PI3K

Passenger mutations have a low malignant effect

True

Myc is an early response gene that increases telomerase activity

True

Match the following cancer hallmark with its description:

Insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals = Cancer cells do not respond to signals that would normally stop their growth Evasion of apoptosis = Cancer cells avoid programmed cell death Sustained angiogenesis = Cancer cells stimulate the growth of blood vessels to ensure a blood supply for the tumor Ability to invade and metastasize = Cancer cells can spread from their original site to other parts of the body

Most tumor suppressor genes affect the cell cycle at.....

G1 phase

p16, cyclin D, CDK4, and RB are all oncogenes

False

Both RB and P53 can recognize genotoxic stress

True

p53 is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer

False

A mutation to Mdm2 could lead to carcinogenesis

True

A cancer cell evading senescence is an example of......

Limitless replicative potential

Study Notes

Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes in Cancer Progression

  • Tumors evolve genetically based on survival of the fittest subclones, becoming more aggressive over time
  • Oncogenes promote excessive cell growth, driven by mutations in proto-oncogenes
  • Ras, a downstream component of receptor tyrosine kinases signaling pathways, is the most common abnormality in human tumors
  • The PI3K family is also common in certain cancers, with 30% of breast carcinomas having gain-of-function mutations
  • MYC, induced by Ras/MAPK signaling, increases cell proliferation and growth, contributing to cancer
  • Gain-of-function mutations in cyclin D and Cdk4 affect progression through the G1/S checkpoint, implicated in various cancers
  • Tumor suppressor genes, such as RB and p53, apply brakes to cell proliferation and recognize genotoxic stress
  • RB functions as a key negative regulator of the G1/S checkpoint and is directly or indirectly inactivated in most human cancers
  • TP53, "Guardian of the Genome," regulates cell cycle progression, DNA repair, cellular senescence, and apoptosis
  • Mutated p53 contributes to carcinogenesis by failing to arrest the cell cycle until DNA repair is successful
  • Loss of p53 leads to unrepaired DNA damage and accumulation of driver mutations in oncogenes, driving malignant transformation
  • CDKIs, such as p16, are frequently mutated or silenced in many human malignancies, with inherited mutations implicated in familial forms of melanoma

Test your knowledge of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer progression with this quiz. Explore the role of key genes like Ras, MYC, RB, p53, and more in the development and progression of various cancers.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser