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Ocean Circulation and Water Residence Time

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30 Questions

What is the primary driver of the vertical water motions within the surface layer of the ocean?

Kinetic energy transfer from the wind

What is the main reason that the gyres in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres rotate in opposite directions?

The Coriolis effect acts in opposite directions in the two hemispheres

How do the wind-driven surface currents impact climate?

All of the above

What is the primary mechanism by which the ocean and atmosphere exchange energy and matter?

Evaporation and precipitation

How does the thermohaline circulation impact the residence time of deep ocean water?

It increases the residence time by slowing the mixing of deep and surface waters

What is the primary cause of the Coriolis effect?

The rotation of the Earth

Which type of eddy is characterized by a warmer and higher center?

Anti-cyclonic eddy

In which direction does air circulation occur for low-pressure systems in the Northern Hemisphere?

Counterclockwise

What is the primary factor that determines the residence time of deep water in the ocean?

Thermohaline circulation

How do eddies in the ocean relate to atmospheric weather systems?

Eddies are analogous to low and high-pressure systems in the atmosphere

What is the primary cause of the thermohaline circulation?

Differences in temperature and salinity between regions

How do wind-driven surface currents impact climate?

They redistribute heat and moisture globally, influencing weather patterns

What is the main reason that the gyres in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres rotate in opposite directions?

The Coriolis effect caused by the Earth's rotation

What is the primary cause of gyres in the Earth's oceans?

Coriolis effect and wind patterns

Which of the following currents is part of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre?

California Current

What is the approximate area occupied by the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre?

10 million square miles

What is the direction of rotation for the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre?

Clockwise

What is the name given to the accumulation of marine debris found within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre?

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch

Which of the following factors determine the circulation patterns of gyres?

Coriolis effect and wind patterns

How do wind-driven surface currents impact climate?

They transport heat and moisture, influencing weather patterns

What is the primary driving force behind the Gulf Stream?

Thermohaline circulation

Which of the following is a potential impact of the Gulf Stream on climate?

It contributes to the development of strong cyclones

What is the approximate rate at which the Gulf Stream transports water through the Florida Straits?

30 million cubic meters per second

Which of the following ocean currents is stronger than the Gulf Stream?

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current

What is the main impact of El Niño on the weather in the central United States?

Increased rainfall

Which of the following best describes the general pattern of water circulation in the North Atlantic?

Clockwise, flowing northward along the US coast, then eastward toward Europe

How does El Niño affect the fishing industry off the coast of Peru?

It prevents colder, nutrient-rich deep water from reaching the surface, harming the fishing industry

What is the approximate residence time of deep water in the Pacific Ocean?

1,000-2,000 years

Where does the oldest water in the global ocean conveyor belt upwell?

North Pacific Ocean

Which of the following statements about the Mediterranean Sea is true?

It is surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land

Explore the dynamics of ocean circulation and the residence time of deep water in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Learn about the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water and the processes that contribute to the movement of dense water in ocean basins.

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