Nucleic Acid Extraction and PCR Techniques
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Nucleic Acid Extraction and PCR Techniques

Learn about nucleic acids, the main information-carrying molecules of the cell, and the techniques of nucleic acid extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This quiz covers the basics of nucleic acids and their importance in determining inherited characteristics, as well as the practical methods of extraction and amplification through PCR.

Created by
@FondStrait

Questions and Answers

What are the main classes of nucleic acids?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)

What is the role of RNA in living cells?

It plays an important role in the making of proteins

What are the building blocks of nucleic acids called?

Nucleotides

Which nitrogen-containing bases are categorized as purines?

<p>Adenine (A) and guanine (G)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does DNA constitute?

<p>The genetic material in all free-living organisms and most viruses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does nucleic acid consist of?

<p>A nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which bases are found in all nucleic acids?

<p>A, C, T, G</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between the pentose sugar in DNA and RNA?

<p>The absence of a hydroxyl group on the 2′ carbon in DNA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the structure of normal DNA called?

<p>B-helix</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process involves breaking the hydrogen bonds in DNA, allowing the two strands to separate?

<p>Denaturation or melting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of enzymes recognize and cleave specific sequences in DNA?

<p>Restriction endonucleases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the building blocks of RNA?

<p>Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of nucleases degrade DNA selectively from the end of the chain?

<p>Exonucleases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of RNA in a cell?

<p>Conversion of genetic information into proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of restriction endonucleases in DNA manipulation?

<p>Producing small fragments that characterize genes and genomes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process called when DNA reassociates after denaturation?

<p>Renaturation</p> Signup and view all the answers

DNA is the master blueprint for life and constitutes the genetic material in all free-living organisms and most ______.

<p>viruses</p> Signup and view all the answers

RNA is the genetic material of certain viruses, but it is also found in all living cells, where it plays an important role in certain processes such as the making of ______.

<p>proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose sugar, which is in turn attached to a ______ group.

<p>phosphate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Each nucleic acid contains four of five possible nitrogen-containing bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and ______ (U).

<p>uracil</p> Signup and view all the answers

A and G are categorized as ______, and C, T, and U are collectively called pyrimidines.

<p>purines</p> Signup and view all the answers

Nucleic acids are polynucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a ______ sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group.

<p>pentose</p> Signup and view all the answers

DNA contains the bases A, C, G, and ______

<p>T</p> Signup and view all the answers

RNA contains the bases A, C, G, and ______

<p>U</p> Signup and view all the answers

The pentose sugar in DNA is 2′-deoxyribose and in RNA it is ______

<p>ribose</p> Signup and view all the answers

The absence of a hydroxyl group (―OH) on the 2′ carbon of the sugar ring differentiates 2′-deoxyribose from ______

<p>ribose</p> Signup and view all the answers

The phosphate group connects successive sugar residues by bridging the 5′-hydroxyl group on one sugar to the 3′-hydroxyl group of the next sugar in the ______

<p>chain</p> Signup and view all the answers

The double helical structure of normal DNA takes a right-handed form called the ______

<p>B-helix</p> Signup and view all the answers

Heating DNA in solution easily breaks the hydrogen bonds, allowing the two strands to separate—a process called ______ or melting

<p>denaturation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Nucleases are enzymes that hydrolytically cleave the phosphodiester backbone of ______

<p>DNA</p> Signup and view all the answers

RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid polymer of the four nucleotides A, C, G, and ______

<p>U</p> Signup and view all the answers

RNA is the first intermediate in converting the information from DNA into proteins essential for the working of a ______

<p>cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

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