Milk Hygiene and Chemical Hazards in Veterinary Medicine
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Milk Hygiene and Chemical Hazards in Veterinary Medicine

This quiz covers the sources of milk contamination and chemical hazards in the context of veterinary medicine. It includes information on the occurrence of contaminants in milk and the biological agents that can pose hazards.

Created by
@RaptBamboo

Questions and Answers

Which of the following is NOT a source of milk contamination?

Preservatives

What is the maximum residue limit (MRL) in food related to?

Levels of antibiotics in food

Which of the following is an example of unavoidable chemical hazards in food?

Aflatoxins in peanuts

What do antibiotics do in food?

<p>Limit the growth of microorganisms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of hazard is milk itself considered to be?

<p>Allergen hazard</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are scrombotoxins found in?

<p>Fish</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of using antibiotics in animals mentioned in the text?

<p>To promote growth in animals</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which class of antibiotics is specifically mentioned as being most used in animals?

<p>β-lactams</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the suspected reason for antibiotic residues in milk according to the text?

<p>Extended use of excessive dosage of approved drugs according to label directions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why does the presence of antibiotics at concentrations even below the MRL in milk raise concerns?

<p>It can cause allergic reactions in sensitive consumers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the key public health concerns associated with antibiotic residues in milk?

<p>Development of antimicrobial resistance by bacteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which antibiotic has a recommended milk discard time of 72 hours, but its residue has persisted for as long as 18 days?

<p>Ampicillin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the suggested method to prevent contamination of equipment from cows treated with antibiotics?

<p>Separate treated cows from lactating tank to avoid contaminating equipment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary economic impact of antibiotics on the manufacture of cultured dairy products?

<p>Delay in starter culture activity leading to loss of the product</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one reason why chloramphenicol is prohibited for veterinary use by EU?

<p>&quot;It causes many human diseases&quot;</p> Signup and view all the answers

"Extended use of excessive dosage of approved drugs according to label directions" is mentioned as a suspected reason for antibiotic residues in milk. What measures are suggested to prevent this issue?

<p>&quot;Follow the recommended withdrawal times&quot;</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the definition of contamination in the context of milk hygiene and control?

<p>Occurrence of a contaminant including a food safety hazard in a product or processing environment.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two main types of chemical hazards mentioned in the text? Provide an example for each type.

<p>Toxins produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms (e.g., neurotoxins in mushrooms) and chemicals accidentally contaminating food being processed (e.g., sanitation or maintenance chemicals, pesticides, or environmental pollutants).</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does MRL stand for, and what is its significance in relation to food?

<p>MRL stands for Maximum Residue Limits, which are the maximum levels permitted as residues in food by local and/or international organizations.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Name two categories of chemical additives mentioned in the text, used in food within acceptable limits.

<p>Preservatives (e.g., nitrate, benzoate) and nutritional additives (e.g., niacin, retinol).</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of antibiotics in the context of milk hygiene and control?

<p>To destroy or limit the growth of microorganisms in milk.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the presence of antibiotics at concentrations even below the MRL in milk?

<p>It raises concerns for food safety and public health due to potential antibiotic residues.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some major groups of antibiotics used in animals, as mentioned in the text?

<p>β-lactams, macrolides, ionophores, quinolones, lincosamides, tetracyclines, oxytetracycline</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the suspected reasons for antibiotic residues in milk according to the text?

<p>High therapeutic doses for clinical infections, extended use of excessive dosage, treating mastitis in cows, low sub-therapeutic doses as growth promoters, intentional addition to milk, failure to follow recommended withdrawal time</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the public health importance associated with antibiotic residues in milk?

<p>Severe allergic reactions, development of antimicrobial resistance by bacteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some measures suggested for the prevention and control of antibiotic residues in milk?

<p>Follow recommended withdrawal times, separate treated cows from lactating tunk, exclude milk from treated cows from bulk vat, check newly purchased cows, addition of penicillinase enzyme, periodical examination of market milk, follow the MRLs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the economic impact of antibiotics on the manufacture of cultured dairy products?

<p>They interfere with the manufacture by delaying starter culture activity, leading to product loss</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the key facts about bacterial antimicrobial resistance mentioned in the text?

<p>5 million human deaths in 2019, 27 different antimicrobial classes used in animals</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is chloramphenicol prohibited for veterinary use by EU, according to the text?

<p>It causes many human diseases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the suggested method to prevent contamination of equipment from cows treated with antibiotics?

<p>Separate treated cows from lactating tunk to avoid contaminating equipment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the maximum residue limit (MRL) related to, according to the text?

<p>MRLs are related to avoiding hazards in food</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the impact of the effect of processing on the stability of antibiotic residues in food, according to the text?

<p>The effect is variable, with some degradation products potentially more toxic than the original antibiotic</p> Signup and view all the answers

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